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The University of Georgia's So Easy to Preserve Canning Guide

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University of Georgia

Canning Basics
Canning Process
On Guard Against Spoiling
Canning Fruits
Canning Tomatoes and Tomato Products
Canning Vegetables
Canning Meat, Poultry and Game
Canning Seafood
Canning Soups
Canning Pie Fillings
Frequently Asked Questions

Canning is an important, safe method of food preservation if practiced properly. The canning process involves placing foods in jars or cans and heating them to a temperature that destroys microorganisms that could be a health hazard or cause the food to spoil. Canning also inactivates enzymes that could cause the food to spoil. Air is driven from the jar or can during heating and as it cools a vacuum seal is formed. This vacuum seal prevents air from getting back into the product bringing with it microorganisms to recontaminate the food. (NOTE: This book will give instructions for canning in jars. See your county Extension agent for information on canning in metal cans.)

Canning Basics -- Safe Canning Methods

There are two safe ways of canning, depending on the type of food being canned. These are the boiling water bath method and the pressure canner method. The boiling water bath method is safe for fruits, tomatoes and pickles as well as jam, jellies and other preserves. In this method, jars of food are heated completely covered with boiling water (212°F at sea level).

Pressure canning is the only safe method of canning vegetables, meats, poultry and seafood. Jars of food are placed in 2 to 3 inches of water in a pressure canner which is heated to a temperature of at least 240° F. This temperature can only be reached in a pressure canner. The Clostridium botulinum microorganism is the main reason why pressure canning is necessary. Though the bacterial cells are killed at boiling temperatures, they can form spores that can withstand these temperatures. The spores grow well in low acid foods, in the absence of air, such as in canned low acid foods (vegetables and meats). When the spores begin to grow, they produce the deadly botulinum toxins (poisons).

Luckily, these spores can be destroyed by canning the food at a temperature of 240° F or above for the correct length of time. This temperature is above the boiling point of water so it can only be reached in a pressure canner.

Foods that are low acid (have a pH of more than 4.6 - see Chart 1, Preserving Food) include meats, seafood, poultry, dairy products, and all vegetables. Because of the danger of botulism, these foods must be canned in a pressure canner.

High acid foods contain enough acid (pH of 4.6 or less - refer again to Chart l, Preserving Food) so that the Clostridium botulinum spores can't grow and produce their deadly toxin. High acid foods include fruits and properly pickled vegetables. These foods can be safely canned at boiling temperatures in a boiling water bath canner.

Tomatoes and figs have pH values close to 4.6. To can these in a boiling water bath, acid in the form of lemon juice or citric acid must be added to them.

If you happen to find old time tables for processing low acid foods in a boiling water bath canner, do not use them. Research has shown these time tables to present a very real risk of botulism.

Unsafe Canning Methods

An old out-dated method of canning - the open-kettle method - is now considered unsafe. In this method, foods were heated in a kettle, then poured into jars and a lid was placed on the jar. No processing was done.

With this method there was often spoilage, because bacteria, yeasts and molds that contaminated the food when the jars were filled were not killed by further processing. The growth of these microorganisms, in addition to spoiling the food, often caused any lids that did seal to later come unsealed. This method resulted in a very real danger of botulism.

Steam canning is a newer method of canning that is not considered safe at this time. This canner looks like an upside-down boiling water bath canner. The base is a shallow pan with a rack that is covered with a dome lid. After the jars of food are placed on the canner's base, the small amount of boiling water in the base is supposed to fill the dome lid with steam. The jars are then heated by this steam. However, safe processing times have not been developed and steam canners are not recommended for either high or low acid foods. Low acid foods canned in these canners are potentially deadly because of possible botulism contamination. Also, both low and high acid foods are often very underprocessed and therefore could spoil.

Some people want to be innovative in the use of microwave ovens, electric ovens, slow cookers, crock pots or the sun. These methods can be extremely dangerous, especially with low acid foods and are not recommended. So-called canning powders are useless as preservatives and do not replace the need for proper heat processing.

A Guide to Canning Equipment

Water Bath Canner

A water bath canner is a large covered cooking pot with a rack. Any large metal container may be used as long as it is deep enough for l inch of briskly boiling water to cover the jars. The diameter of the canner should be no more than 4 inches wider than the diameter of your stove's burner to ensure proper treatment of all jars. Using a wash kettle that fits over two burners is not recommended because the middle jars do not get enough heat. For an electric range, the canner must have a flat bottom.

The canner must have a tight-fitting lid and a rack. The rack keeps the jars from touching the bottom of the canner and allows the water to circulate freely under the jars. If the rack has dividers, jars will not touch each other or fall against the sides of the canner during processing.

Wash and dry the boiling water bath canner after each use. To absorb moisture and odors, store it with crumpled newspapers or paper towels in the bottom and around the rack. The darkened surface on the inside of an aluminum canner can be cleaned by filling it above the darkened line with a mixture of 1 tablespoon cream of tartar to each quart of water. Place the canner on the stove and heat to boiling. Boil until the line disappears. Wash the canner with hot soapy water, rinse and dry.

A deep pressure canner can be used as a boiling water bath canner. Just be sure there is enough space above the jars to allow for 1 inch of briskly boiling water. Place the lid loosely on the canner - don't fasten it. Leave the vent wide open, so that steam escapes and pressure does not build up inside.

Pressure Canner

A pressure canner is a specially made heavy pot that has a lid that can be closed steam tight. The lid is fitted with a vent (or petcock), a dial or weighted pressure gauge and a safety fuse. Newer models have an extra coverlock as an added precaution. It may or may not have a gasket. The pressure canner also has a rack. Because each type of canner is different, be sure to read the directions for operating your canner.

The vent or petcock is a short hollow pipe that sticks up above the canner lid. When open, it allows air and steam to escape from the canner. When closed, it holds the steam inside. On newer canners the vent is closed or opened using a separate pressure regulator weight. On older canners, the vent may be closed using a valve or screw that you can turn.

The pressure gauge registers the pressure inside the canner. A dial gauge will actually show the temperature and/or pressure inside the canner. The weighted gauge will rock gently or make a "jiggling" noise periodically to show that correct pressure is being maintained. Read the manufacturer's instructions to see how often the weight should rock or jiggle. Some canners have a three-piece weighted gauge that can regulate 5, 10 or 15 pounds of pressure. For 10 pounds of pressure, one piece of the weight is left off.

Recent tests have shown that dial gauges and weighted gauges actually register slightly different pressures. Because of this, dial gauges are operated at l pounds pressure, up to an altitude of 2000 feet. At altitudes over 2000 feet, corrections must be made for dial gauge canners. Weighted gauge canners can be operated at 10 pounds pressure up to an altitude of 1000 feet. At altitudes over 1000 feet, corrections must be made for weighted gauge canners. Altitude corrections are given with the directions for canning each type of food.

The gasket is a rubber or rubber-like compound that helps seal the edges of the canner and lid to prevent steam from escaping. Gaskets may be removable for cleaning or replacement. (Not all pressure canners have gaskets. Some have a metal-to-metal seal.)

For safe operation, the vent, safety valve and edges of the lid and canner must be clean at all times. To clean the vent, draw a string or narrow strip of cloth through the opening. The dial gauge on a canner should be checked for accuracy yearly. Check with your county Extension agent well in advance of each canning season, for instructions on how this can be done. If your gauge is off more than l pound at 5, 10 or 15 pounds of pressure, you should have it replaced.

Follow the manufacturer's directions for care of the sealing edges of your canner. After use, clean your canner, being careful not to immerse the dial gauge if your canner has one. Dry the canner and store it with crumpled newspapers or paper towels in the bottom and around the rack. This will help absorb moisture and odors. Place the lid upside down on the canner. Never put the lid on the canner and seal it.

The darkened surface on the inside of an aluminum canner can be cleaned by filling it above the darkened line with a mixture of l tablespoon cream of tartar to each quart of water. Place the canner on the stove, heat water to a boil, and boil covered until the dark deposits disappear. Sometimes stubborn deposits may require the addition of more cream of tartar. Empty the canner and wash it with hot soapy water, rinse and dry.

Small pressure saucepans are not recommended for home canning. Also, outmoded and potentially unsafe pressure canners should not be used. Compare old canners with newer models to be sure that what you have is actually a pressure canner and not an old sterilizer or steamer. Before using an old canner, make sure all parts have been checked and are working properly. Buying an old second hand canner may not be a bargain. Sometimes replacement parts are no longer being made.

Canning Jars and Lids

Mason-type jars specifically designed for home canning are best. Commercial mayonnaise jars may not seal and may break, especially in a pressure canner.

Canning jars come in a variety of sizes from half-pint jars to half-gallon jars. Pint and quart jars are the most commonly used sizes. Processing times have not been developed for many foods in half-pint, 12-ounce or one and one-half pint jars. If the recipe does not specify processing in one of these jars, process half-pint and 12-ounce jars for the same time as pints. Process one and one-half pints for the same time as quarts. For jellied fruit products only, 12-ounce jars can be processed for the same time as half-pints. Half-gallon canning jars are recommended only for very acid juices. Jars also come in both the regular and wide-mouth styles. If properly used, jars may be reused indefinitely.

Two-Piece Lids - Most of the canning jars sold today have two-piece, self-sealing lids. This type consists of a flat metal disc which has a sealing compound around the outer edge and a separate metal screw band. The lid is used only once; the screw band may be used over and over, unless it rusts. Do not use any old, dented or deformed lids or those with gaps or flaws in the sealing compound. These may not seal. Lids should be good for at least 5 years after manufacture. Never reuse lids from commercially canned foods for home canning. It is important to follow the directions for use provided by the lid's manufacturer. Each brand of lid may be treated differently.

Zinc Lids - Some home canners still have the old porcelain-lined zinc lids. This type of lid was used with a rubber ring that fits on a sealing ledge located below the threads of the jar. The metal portion of the cap was used many times. These zinc lids are no longer recommended because they often fail to seal. Also, the rubber rings are no longer available.

Bail-Type Jars - Some home canners still have access to some of the old bail-type canning jars. These were sealed using a rubber ring that fit on a sealing ledge located about ¼ inch below the top of the jar. These closures are also no longer recommended for home canning and are no longer being manufactured.

Some new imported bail-type jars are available in this country. Many of these are not heat tempered and while these jars come with one rubber ring, no replacement rings are available for reuse. These jars are better used for food storage and decorative purposes than for home canning. Old antique glass canning jars of any type are prized as collector's items. These jars are often too brittle to withstand the heat treatment involved in canning and have a great likelihood of breaking during heat processing. They are best for uses other than canning.

Additional Canning Utensils

The following items are helpful for home canning:

A number of other home canning accessories such as corn cutters, apple slicers, decorative labels and special canning spoons are available. Some of these items may simplify the procedures but are not essential. Jar lid tighteners and wrenches are not recommended.

Home Canning Recipes

The best sources of instructions for home canning are the recently published booklets prepared by the Cooperative Extension Service, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), major manufacturers of home canning equipment or other reliable professionals.

Avoid following the home canning advice of untrained celebrities, old cookbooks, "back to nature" publications, and out-of-date home canning leaflets. Some potentially dangerous instructions can be found in old official publications, even those from this state! Be sure you have the latest publications based on current research!

The Canning Process -- Getting Ready To Can

Assemble and wash equipment and containers before gathering fruits and vegetables. Gather products early when they are at their peak of quality. Do not use over-ripe products. Gather or purchase only as much as you can handle within 2 or 3 hours. (See Table 2, Preserving Food for the approximate yields of canned foods from fresh.)

Wash the product carefully, small amounts at a time. Lift the food out of the water, drain the water and continue rinsing until the water is clear and free of dirt. Dirt contains some of the bacteria that are hardest to kill. Don't let the food soak; it will lose flavor and nutrients. The cleaner the raw foods, the more effective the canning process. Do not can decayed or damaged food items.

Pre-heating the Canner

Fill the boiling water bath or pressure canner with the appropriate amount of hot water and begin heating it on the range. One to 2 inches of water above the tops of the jars is needed in a boiling water bath canner. Two to 3 inches of water are needed in the bottom of a pressure canner. This can be difficult to determine before the filled jars are placed in the canner. After using your canner you'll learn how much water to start with. Until then, be prepared by having an extra pan of water heating in case you've heated too little water in your canner. If you've heated too much, be prepared to remove some.

Preparing the Jars and Lids

Examine jars and discard those with nicks, cracks and rough edges. These defects will not permit an airtight seal on the jar and food spoilage will result. All canning jars should be washed in soapy water, rinsed well and then kept hot. This could be done in a dishwasher or by placing the jars in the water that is heating in your canner. The jars need to be kept hot to prevent breakage when they're filled with a hot product and placed in the canner for processing.

Jars that will be filled with food and processed for less than 10 minutes in a boiling water bath canner do need to be sterilized. This can be done by boiling them for 10 minutes. NOTE: If you are at an altitude of 1000 feet or more, boil an additional minute for each 1000 feet of additional altitude. Jars processed in a boiling water bath canner for 10 minutes or more, or in a pressure canner will be sterilized during processing.

Be sure to use new two-piece lids. Follow the manufacturer's instructions for treating them. Some need to be brought almost to a boil and then left in hot water, while others need to be boiled for a period of time.

Methods of Pack

Fruits and vegetables may be packed raw or they may be preheated and then packed into canning jars. A jar filler will help when filling the jars with small foods. In this book, directions for both raw and hot packs are given for many foods. Others may have directions for only the type of pack most suitable for that product. Always use the type of pack that is specified for each food. If given a choice, the hot pack yields better color and flavor, especially when foods are processed in a boiling water bath.

Raw pack means putting raw, unheated food directly in jars. Boiling hot water, juice or syrup is poured over the food to obtain proper head space.

Fruits and most vegetables packed raw should be packed tightly because they will shrink during processing; however, corn, lima beans, potatoes and peas should be packed loosely because they expand during canning.

Hot pack means heating the food to boiling (or cooking it for a certain length of time) and then packing the hot food and boiling hot liquid in jars. Foods packed hot should be packed fairly loosely, as shrinkage has already taken place.

For both raw pack and hot pack, there should be enough syrup, water or juice to fill in around the solid food in the jar and to cover the food. If not covered by liquid, food at the top tends to darken and develop unnatural flavors. It takes from ½ to l ½ cups of liquid for a quart jar.

Head Space

Whether the boiling water bath or the steam pressure canner method is being used, a certain amount of "head space" must be allowed. This is the space in the jar between the inside of the lid and top of the food or its liquid. The amount of head space needed depends on the type of food being processed. Starchy foods for instance, tend to swell when heated and therefore require more head space.

If the jars are filled too full (leaving too little head space) the contents may boil out during processing. Solids or seeds may be caught under the sealing compound and prevent the jar from sealing.

If too much head space is left at the top of the jar, the processing time may not be long enough to drive out all the extra air from the top of the jar. This would mean that a tight vacuum seal may not be formed. Also, the air left inside the jar could cause the food to discolor.

For the correct head space for each food, check the processing directions for each specific food.

Closing the Jars

Air bubbles trapped inside the jar may rise to the top during processing, causing too much head space. This can result in the jars not sealing properly.

To make sure that air bubbles have not been trapped inside the jar, run a bubble freer or any plastic or rubber knife-like utensil around the edges of the jar, gently shifting the food, so that any trapped air is released. Do not use a metal knife to do this because the metal can scratch the glass inside the jar. Though these scratches may be difficult to detect, they weaken the jar and could cause it to break during later processing. After the air bubbles have been removed, more liquid may need to be added to the jar to insure proper head space.

Next, wipe off the rims of the jars with a clean, damp cloth. Any foreign matter such as food particles, seeds, grease, sugar, syrup or brine on the rims of the jar may prevent an airtight seal from forming.

When using two-piece lids place the treated lid on the filled jar, center it, and hold in place with fingers. Then screw the band down fingertip-tight. These lids will not require further tightening, after processing.

Do not use force or jar tighteners when applying the lids. Tightening the screw band too tight will prevent the air from escaping as is necessary during processing. This can result in buckled lids (lids that are deformed in some way by the air trying to force its way out). Buckled lids may not seal properly.

Processing the Jars of Food

Each food has its own processing time. These processing times are based on research that tells how long the product must be heated so that all of the food in the jar has reached the temperature needed to destroy all dangerous microorganisms. The length of time required varies with the denseness of the food, its packing liquid and its pH.

Because these processing times are based on research, they should be followed exactly. Underprocessing can result in spoiled food, while overprocessing results in overcooked food. Do not guess at the processing time if you can't find one.

Boiling Water Bath Method

The water bath canner is used to process foods at a boiling temperature (212° F at sea level). It is recommended for processing acid foods such as fruits, tomatoes, pickles and relishes. Heat from the boiling water is sufficient to destroy microorganisms which cause spoilage in acid foods. Jams, jellies, preserves, conserves, marmalades, butters, honeys and syrups are also processed in a boiling water bath canner.

The following are general instructions for using a boiling water bath canner:

Pressure Canner Method

The pressure canner is used to process foods under pressure. The temperature most often used is 240° F (10 or 11 pounds pressures, depending on the type of canner). A pressure canner is the only safe method for processing low acid foods such as vegetables, meat, poultry and fish. The pressure canner can supply enough heat to destroy spores of bacteria that cause botulism as well as other types of spoilage. Failure to properly process low acid foods in a pressure canner can result in botulism which is often fatal.

Read your manufacturer's instructions on the use of your pressure canner. The following are general instructions:

Adjustments for Altitude

As altitude increases, water boils at lower temperatures. Because the lower temperatures are less effective for killing bacteria, the processing time must be increased for boiling water bath canning. For pressure canning, the pressure is increased.

The directions for canning foods in the main text of this book are for an altitude of 0 to 1000 feet. Be sure you are canning safely! Ask your county Extension agent to help you determine your altitude. Many areas in North Georgia are at altitudes of 1000 to 3000 feet. If you are canning at an altitude over 1000 feet, follow the altitude adjustments given for canning each type of food.

Testing for Sealed Jars

After 12 to 24 hours, test to be sure the jars are sealed. Most two-piece lids will seal with a "pop" sound while they're cooling. When completely cool, test the lid. It should be curved downward and should not move when pressed with a finger. A conventional method is to tap the center of the lid with a spoon. A clear ringing sound means a good seal. A dull note may mean it doesn't have a tight seal or that food is touching the underside of the lid. To determine which, hold the jar up and look at it. If no food is touching the lid, the jar does not have a tight seal.

If a jar is not sealed, refrigerate it and use the unspoiled food within two to three days. Other options are to reprocess the food within 24 hours or to freeze it.

If liquid has been lost from sealed jars do not open them to replace it, simply plan to use these first. The food may discolor, but if sealed, the food is safe.

Label and Store Jars

The screw bands should be removed from sealed jars to prevent them from rusting on. The screw bands can then be washed, dried and stored for later use.

Wash food residue from the jars and rinse. Label, showing contents, date and lot number (if you canned more than one canner full that day). It's important to write down the lot number so that if one jar spoils, you can identify the others from that canner load. Store in a clean, cool, dark, dry place. The best temperature is between 50° and 70° F. For best quality, use canned foods within one year.

Avoid storing canned foods in a warm place near hot pipes, a range or a furnace, or in direct sunlight. They lose quality in a few weeks or months, depending on the temperature, and may even spoil. There are certain thermophilic or "heat loving" spoilage bacteria whose spores survive the canning process. However, they are only activated by temperatures over 104° F. If they do begin to grow and form vegetative cells, the cells can cause food spoilage.

Keep canned goods dry. Dampness may corrode metal lids and cause leakage so food will spoil.

Accidental freezing of canned food does not cause food spoilage unless the seal is damaged or the jar is broken. However, frozen canned food may be less palatable than properly stored canned food. Protect jars of canned food stored in a cold place by wrapping the jars in newspaper, storing them in heavy cartons and covering them with more newspaper or blankets.

To Reprocess Food From Unsealed Jars

If you decide to reprocess foods from jars that did not seal, do so within 24 hours. To do this, remove the lid and check the jar sealing surface for tiny nicks. Change the jar if necessary, add a new treated lid and reprocess using the same processing time.

Label food that has been remanded and use these foods first. It will be softer in texture and lower in nutritional value than food processed only once.

On Guard Against Spoilage

Don't taste or use canned food that shows any sign of spoilage! Look closely at all jars before opening them. A bulging lid or leaking jar are signs of spoilage. When you open the jar, look for other signs such as spurting liquid, an off odor or mold.

Spoiled canned foods should be discarded in a place where they will not be eaten by humans or pets. Spoiled low acid vegetables, meats and seafood should be detoxified to destroy any poisons that might be present, before being discarded.

To detoxify canned low acid foods that have spoiled, carefully remove the lid from the jar. Place the jar(s) of food and the lids in a saucepot. (No need to remove the food from the jar - removing it could contaminate other items.) Add enough hot water to cover the jar(s). Boil for 30 minutes and then cool. Drain water and dispose of food and lid. The jar may be reused.

Improperly canned low acid foods can contain botulism toxin without showing signs of spoilage. Low acid foods are considered improperly canned if any of the following are true:

Because improperly canned low acid foods can contain botulism toxin without showing signs of spoilage, they should also be detoxified as directed and then discarded.

Surfaces that come in contact with spoiled or questionable food should be cleaned with a solution of 1 part chlorine bleach to 5 parts water. Wet the surface with this solution and let stand 5 minutes before rinsing.

Canning Fruits

Canned fruits must be processed to insure their safety. The quickest way to process them is in a boiling water bath (212° F at sea level). Some people prefer to pressure can fruits. While a pressure canner can be used for some products, the total time needed for the canning process will be much longer in a pressure canner. This is because pressure canners require extra time to heat up, exhaust, pressurize and cool down.

Directions for canning fruits in a boiling water bath are given in the following sections. Optional pressure canning times for some of the products are given in the table below. Before you begin canning fruits, be sure that you've read the general instructions in the Canning Basics Section.

Canning Liquids for Fruits

Fruits may be canned in water, juice or a sweet syrup. The sweet syrup helps the fruit hold its shape, color and flavor; but does not preserve the fruit.

Directions for canning each fruit will specify the canning liquid that results in the product most like the commercially canned product. Most canning liquids contain sugar. However, you may want to experiment. You may be pleased with a water, juice or lighter syrup packed product.

Syrup Packs

Sugar syrup is made by mixing water or juice extracted from some of the fruit (see "Juice Packs") with sugar. The mixture is heated to dissolve the sugar and is kept hot until ready for use. Choose a syrup from the chart to suit the sweetness of the fruit and your own taste.

Juice Packs

Commercial unsweetened apple juice, pineapple juice or white grape juice make good packing liquids for many fruits. These may be used as is or diluted with water. Juice can also be extracted from some of the fruit that's being canned or from fresh apples, pineapples or white grapes.

Syrups for Use in Canning Fruits

Type of
Syrup
Percent
Sugar*
Cups of
Sugar**
Per Quart
Liquid
Yield of
Syrup in
Cups*
How Syrup is Used
Commercially

Very Light
Light
Medium
10%
20%
30%
½
1


5

Very sweet fruit
Sweet apples, cherries, berries, grapes


Heavy 40% 5 1/3 Tart apples, apricots, sour cherries, goose berries, nectarines, pears, peaches, plums

Very Heavy 50% 4 6 Very sour fruit

*Approximate
**In general, up to one-half of the sugar may be replaced by corn syrup or mild-flavored honey. A large proportion of corn syrup may be used if a very bland, light-colored type is selected.

To Extract Juice-Thoroughly crush ripe, sound fruit. Heat to simmering over low heat. Strain through cheesecloth or a jelly bag.

Artificial Sweeteners

It's best to add these just before serving the fruit. Saccharin-based sweeteners can turn bitter during processing. Aspartame-based sweeteners lose their sweetening power during processing.

Preventing Fruits From Darkening

After they are cut or peeled, light colored fruits such as apples, pears and peaches will begin to turn dark. Also, the stem ends may darken after cherries are pitted or after grapes are removed from the stem. To prevent this, as you prepare the fruit for canning, place it in a holding solution made from one of the following:

Hold the fruit in one of these solutions until you're ready to pack the fruit. Then drain the fruit well.

Caution! Altitude Adjustments

The processing times given for canning fruits are for altitudes of 0 to 1000 feet. If you are canning at a higher altitude, use the processing times provided in the table below.

Apple Juice

Good quality apple juice is made from a blend of apple varieties. For best results, buy fresh juice from a local cider maker within 24 hours after it has been pressed.

Refrigerate juice for 24 to 28 hours. Without mixing, carefully pour off clear liquid and discard sediment. Strain clear liquid through a paper coffee filter or double layer of damp cheesecloth. Hot pack-Sterilize pint or quart jars. Heat juice, stirring occasionally until juice begins to boil. Pour into hot jars, leaving ¼-inch head space. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints or Quarts...............................................5 minutes

Half-Gallons..................................................10 minutes

Apples

Select apples that are juicy, crisp and preferably both sweet and tart.

Hot Pack-Make a very light, light or medium syrup as previously described. Wash, peel, core and slice apples. Review recommendations to prevent darkening. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints or Quarts...............................................20 minutes

Applesauce

Select apples that are sweet, juicy and crisp. For a tart flavor, add 1 to 2 pounds of tart apples to each 3 pounds of sweeter fruit.

Hot Pack-Wash, peel, and core apples. Review recommendations to prevent darkening. Place drained slices in an 8 to 10-quart pot. Add ½ cup water. Stirring occasionally to prevent burning, heat quickly and cook until tender (5 to 20 minutes, depending on maturity and variety). Press through a sieve or food mill, if desired. If you prefer chunk-style sauce, omit the pressing step. If desired, add 1/8 cup sugar per quart of sauce. Taste and add more, if preferred. Reheat sauce to boiling. Pack into hot jars, leaving ½-inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints...............................................................15 minutes

Quarts............................................................20 minutes

Apricots

Follow preparation procedures, and processing times recommended for canning peaches. Peeling is optional.

Baby Food

Fruits are the only type of baby food that may be processed at home. The fruit is pursed or mashed (chunk-style) and processed as directed below.

Hot Pack-Select your favorite fruit or mixture of fruits (except figs). Stem, wash, drain, peel and remove pits if necessary. Measure fruit into a large saucepan, crushing slightly. Add 1 cut hot water for each quart of fruit. Cook, slowly until fruit is soft, stirring frequently. Mash fruit or press through a sieve or food mill. If desired, add sugar to taste. Reheat fruit to a boil. If sugar was added, boil until it dissolves. Pack fruit into hot half-pint or pint jars, leaving ½ -inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Half-Pints or Pints................................................................20 minutes

To Serve-Heat the blended foods to boiling, simmer for 10 minute cool and sere. Store unused portions in the refrigerator and use within 2 days for best quality.

CAUTION: Do not attempt to can pursed vegetables, red meats or poultry. Proper processing times for pureed foods have not been determined for home use. Instead, can and store these foods using the standard processing procedures. Then puree or blend them at serving times.

Berries (Blackberries, Blueberries, Currants, Dewberries, Elderberries, Gooseberries, Huckleberries, Loganberries, Mulberries and Raspberries)

Choose ripe sweet berries with uniform color. Berries may be canned in water, juice or syrup. Prepare and heat the liquid of your choice. Wash 1 or 2 quarts of berries at a time. Drain, cap and stem if necessary. For gooseberries, snip off heads and tails with scissors.

Hot Pack - (Use blueberries, currants, elderberries, gooseberries, and huckleberries.) Heat to boiling, about 1 gallon of water for each pound of berries. Blanch berries in boiling water for 30 seconds. Drain. Place ½ cup of hot syrup, juice or water in each hot jar. Pack hot berries into hot jars, leaving ½-inch head space. Fill jars to ½ inch from top with more hot syrup, juice or water. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints...............................................................15 minutes

Quarts............................................................20 minutes

Cherries

Select bright, uniformly-colored cherries that are mature. They should be ideal for eating fresh or cooking.

Stem and wash cherries. Remove pits if desired. If pitted, treat to prevent stem-end discoloration as recommended. If cherries are caned unpitted, prick skins on opposite sides with a clean needle to prevent splitting. Cherries may be canned in water, apple juice, white grape juice or syrup. If syrup is desired, select and prepare the syrup or your choice. If another liquid is used, heat it to boiling.

Hot Pack - Remove cherries from anti-darkening solution and drain well. Place cherries in a large saucepan. Add ½ cup water, juice or syrup to each quart of fruit. Bring to a boil. Pack cherries in hot jars, leaving ½-inch head space. Fill jar to ½ inch from top with hot liquid. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints...............................................................15 minutes

Quarts.............................................................20 minutes

Raw Pack - Remove cherries from anti-darkening solution and drain well. Add ½ cup hot water, juice or syrup to each hot jar. Fill jars to ½ inch from the top with drained cherries, shaking down gently as you fill. Add more hot liquid, leaving ½-inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints or Quarts...............................................25 minutes

Cranberries

Hot Pack - Make a heavy syrup as recommended. Wash and remove stems from cranberries. Drop into boiling syrup. Boil 3 minutes. Pack into hot jars, leaving ½-inch head space. Fill jar to ½-inch from top with boiling syrup. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints or Quarts..............................................15 minutes

Cranberry Sauce
(about 2 pint jars)

1 quart cranberries
1 cup water
2 cups sugar

Hot Pack-Wash cranberries. Cook berries in water until soft. Press through a fine sieve. Add sugar and boil 3 minutes. Pour boiling hot sauce into hot jars, leaving ½ -inch head space. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints or Quarts...............................................15 minutes

Figs

Select firm, ripe, uncracked figs. The mature color depends on the variety. Avoid overripe figs with very soft flesh.

Hot Pack-Prepare a light syrup as recommended. Wash figs thoroughly and drain. Do not peel or remove stems. Cover figs with water and boil 2 minutes. Drain. Gently boil figs in syrup for 5 minutes. Add 2 tablespoons bottled lemon juice to each hot quart jar; 1 tablespoon to each pint jar. Or, add ½ teaspoon citric acid to each hot quart jar; ¼ teaspoon to each hot pint jar. Pack hot figs into hot jars leaving ½ -inch head space. Fill jars with hot syrup to ½ inch from the top. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints...............................................................45 minutes

Quarts............................................................50 minute

Fruit Puree
(For any Fruit Except Figs)

Hot Pack-Stem, wash, drain, peel and remove pits, if necessary. Measure fruit into large saucepan, crushing slightly if desired. Add 1 cup hot water for each quart of fruit. Cook slowly until fruit is soft, stirring frequently. Press through sieve or food mill. If desired, add sugar to taste. Reheat pulp to boil. If sugar was added, boil until it dissolves. Pack puree into hot jars, leaving ¼ -inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints or Quarts...............................................15 minutes

Grapefruit

Raw Pack-Select firm, sweet, eating-ripe fruit. Selections may be packed in water, citrus juice or syrup as recommended. If a syrup is used, prepare a very light, light or medium syrup and bring to a boil. Wash and peel fruit. Remove white tissue to prevent a bitter taste. Break fruit into sections. Fill jars with sections and water, juice or hot syrup leaving ½ -inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints or Quarts...............................................10 minutes

Grapes

Choose unripe, tight-skinned, preferably green seedless grapes harvested two weeks before they reach optimum eating quality. Prepare a very light or light syrup. Stem, wash and drain grapes. Follow the appropriate directions to prevent stem-end darkening.

Hot Pack-Heat to boiling, 1 gallon fresh water per pound of grapes. Remove grapes from anti-darkening solution and drain well . Blanch grapes in boiling water for 30 seconds. Drain. Pack hot fruit into hot jars, leaving ½ -inch head space. Fill jars to ½-inch from top with hot syrup. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints or Quarts...............................................10 minutes

Raw Pack-Remove grapes from anti-darkening solution and drain well. Pack drained grapes in hot jars, leaving ½ -inch head space. Fill jar to ½ inch from top with hot syrup. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints...............................................................15 minutes

Quarts.............................................................20 minutes

Grape Juice

Hot Pack-Select sweet, well-colored, firm, mature fruit of ideal quality for eating fresh or cooking.

Sterilize pint or quart jars. Wash and stem grapes. Place grapes in a saucepan and add boiling water to cover grapes. Heat and simmer slowly until skins are soft. Strain through a damp jelly bag or double layers of cheesecloth. Refrigerate juice for 24 to 48 hours. Without mixing, carefully pour off and save clear liquid. Discard sediment. If desired, strain through a paper coffee filter for a clearer juice. Place juice in a saucepan. Sweeten juice to taste, if desired. Heat, stirring until juice begins to boil. Pour into hot jars, leaving ¼-inch head space. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints or Quart..................................................5 minutes

Half-Gallons...................................................10 minutes

Mixed Fruit Cocktail
(about 6 pint jars)

3 pounds peaches
3 pounds pears
1½ pounds slightly underripe seedless green grapes
10-ounce jar maraschino cherries
3 cups sugar
4 cups water

Stem and wash grapes. Follow the appropriate directions to prevent darkening. Dip ripe but firm peaches, a few at a time, in boiling water for 1 to 1½ minutes to loosen skins. Dip in cold water and slip off skins. Cut in half, remove pits, cut into ½-inch cubes and place in anti-darkening solution with grapes. Peel, halve and core pears. Cut into ½ -inch cubes, and place in solution with grapes and peaches.

Combine sugar and water in a saucepan and bring to boil. Remove fruit from anti-darkening solution and drain well. Add ½ cup of hot syrup to each hot jar. Then fill each jar to ½ inch from top, with a few cherries and the fruit mix. Fill jars with more hot syrup, leaving ½-inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Half-Pints or Pints...........................................20 minutes

Mangos

Raw Pack-Make a light or medium syrup. Add ¼ cup of lemon juice to each quart of syrup. Select green, firm, non-fibrous fruit. Peel and slice. Place in hot syrup. Allow fruit to stand in syrup until it cools. Pack fruit in hot jars, leaving ½-inch head space. Boil syrup for 5 minutes. Fill jar to ½ inch from top with boiling syrup. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints...............................................................15 minutes

Quarts............................................................20 minutes

Nectarines

Follow preparation procedures and processing times recommended for peaches. Nectarines are washed but not peeled before canning.

Oranges

The flavor of oranges is best if not canned alone. Oranges are best when canned with equal parts of grapefruit. Follow procedures and processing times recommended for grapefruit.

Papaya

Hot Pack-Make a medium or heavy syrup. Add ¼ cup lemon juice to each quart of syrup. Select firm ripe fruit. Peel and remove seeds. Cut fruit in cubes and put in a medium syrup. Cook papaya gently in syrup for 2 to 3 minutes. Pack hot fruit in hot jars, leaving ½-inch head space. Fill jar to ½-inch from the top with boiling syrup. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints...............................................................15 minutes

Quarts............................................................20 minutes

Peaches

Choose ripe, mature fruit of ideal quality for eating fresh or cooking. For best quality, allow peaches to ripen for at least 1 day after harvest. Peaches can be packed in very light, light or medium syrup. They can also be packed in water, apple juice or white grape juice. Prepare the liquid and keep it hot.

Dip fruit in boiling water for 30 to 60 seconds until skins loosen. Dip quickly in cold water and slip off skins. Cut in half, remove pits and slice if desired. Follow the appropriate directions to prevent darkening.

Hot Pack-Remove peaches from anti-darkening solution and drain well. In a large saucepan heat drained fruit in syrup, water or juice. Bring to a boil. Pack hot fruit into hot jars leaving ½-inch head space. When packing halves, place them cut side down. Fill jars to ½ inch from top with hot liquid. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints...............................................................20 minutes

Quarts............................................................25 minutes

Raw Pack-Remove peaches from anti-darkening solution and drain well. Pack raw fruit into hot jar, leaving ½-inch head space. When packing halves, place them cut side down. Fill jars with hot liquid to ½-inch from the top. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints...............................................................25 minutes

Quarts............................................................30 minutes

Pears

Choose ripe, mature fruit of ideal quality for eating fresh or cooking. For best quality allow pears to ripen for at least 1 day after harvest.

Hot Pack-Prepare a very light, light or medium syrup; or heat apple juice, white grape juice or water. Wash and peel pears. Cut lengthwise in halves and remove core. A melon baller or metal measuring spoon is suitable for coring pears. To prevent discoloration follow the appropriate directions. Remove pears from anti-darkening solution and drain well. Boil drained pears 5 minutes in syrup, juice or water. Pack hot pears into hot jars, leaving ½- inch head space. Fill jars to ½ inch from the top with hot liquid. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints...............................................................20 minutes

Quarts............................................................25 minutes
NOTE: A hot pack gives the best quality product. If a raw pack is used, follow the directions and processing times for raw packing peaches.

Pineapple

Hot Pack-Select firm, ripe pineapples. Prepare a very light, light or medium syrup; or heat water, apple juice or white grape juice. Peel and remove eyes and tough fiber from pineapples. Slice or cube the fruit. In a large saucepan, add pineapple to syrup, water or juice. Simmer for 10 minutes. Pack pineapple into hot jars, leaving ½-inch head space. Fill jars with hot liquid, to ½-inch from the top. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints...............................................................15 minutes

Quarts.............................................................20 minutes

Pineapple

Hot Pack-Select firm, ripe pineapples. Prepare a very light, light or medium syrup; or heat water, apple juice or white grape juice. Peel and remove eyes and tough fiber from pineapples. Slice or cube the fruit. In a large saucepan, add pineapple to syrup, water or juice. Simmer for 10 minutes. Pack pineapple into hot jars, leaving ½-inch head space. Fill jars with hot liquid, to ½ inch from the top. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints................................................................15 minutes

Quarts.............................................................20 minutes

Plums

Select deep-colored, mature fruit of ideal quality for eating fresh or cooking. For best quality, allow plums to ripen at least I day after harvest.

Plums may be packed in water or syrup. If syrup is used, prepare a very light, light or medium syrup according to directions. Stem and ash plums. To can whole, prick skins on two sides of plums with fork to prevent splitting. Freestone varieties may be halved and pitted.

Hot Pack-Add plums to water or hot syrup and boil 2 minutes. Cove, saucepan and let stand 20 to 30 minutes. Pack hot plums into hot jars, leaving ½-inch head space. Fill jars with hot plums and cooking liquid or syrup leaving ½ -inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process as directed below.

Raw Pack-Pack raw plums firmly into hot jars, leaving ½-inch head space. Fill jars with hot water or syrup to ½ inch from the top. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints..................................................................20 minutes

Quarts....... .......................................................25 minutes

Rhubarb

Hot Pack-Select young, tender, well-colored stalks from the spring or late fall crop.

Trim off leaves. Wash stalks and cut into ½ to 1 inch pieces. In a large saucepan add ½ cup sugar for each quart of rhubarb. Let stand until juice appears. Heat gently to boiling. Immediately, pack rhubarb mixture in hot jars, leaving ½-inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints or Quarts..................................................15 minutes

Zucchini-Pineapple

4 quarts cubed or

shredded zucchini
46 ounces canned

unsweetened pineapple juice

1½ cups bottled lemon juice
3 cups sugar

Hot Pack-Peel zucchini and either cut into ½ -inch cubes or shred. Mix zucchini with other ingredients in a large saucepan and bring to a boil. Simmer 20 minutes. Fill hot jars with hot mixture and cooking liquid, leaving ½-inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Half-Pints or Pints............................................15 minutes

 

Boiling Water Bath Processing Times for Fruits at Altitudes Over 1000 Feet

  Process Time (Minutes)
at Altitudes of:

Fruit Style of Pack Jar Size 1001-3000 ft. 3001-6000 ft. over 6000 ft.

Apple Juice Hot Pints or Quarts
Half-Gallons
10
15
10
15
15
20

Apples Hot Pints or Quarts 25 30 35

Applesauce Hot Pints
Quarts
20
25
20
30
25
35

Baby Food Hot Half-Pints
or Pints
25 30 35

Berries Hot
Raw
Pints or Quarts
Pints
Quarts
20
20
25
20
20
30
25
25
35

Cherries Hot

Raw

Pints
Quarts
Pints or Quarts
20
25
30
20
30
35
25
35
40

Cranberries Hot Pints or Quarts 20 20 25

Cranberry Sauce Hot Pints or Quarts 20 20 25

Figs Hot Pints
Quarts
50
55
55
60
60
65

Fruit Puree Hot Pints or Quarts 20 20 25

Grapefruit or Oranges Raw Pints or Quarts 15 15 20

Grapes Hot
Raw
Pints or Quarts
Pints
Quarts
15
20
25
15
20
30
20
25
35

Grape Juice Hot Pints or Quarts
Half-Gallon
10
15
10
15
15
20

Mangos Raw Pints
Quarts
20
25
20
30
25
35

Mixed Fruit Cocktail Raw Half-Pints
or Pints
25 30 35

Papayas Hot Pints
Quarts
20
25
20
30
25
35

Peaches
Apricots or
Nectarines
Hot

Raw

Pints
Quarts
Pints
Quarts
25
30
30
35
30
35
35
40
35
40
40
45

Pears Hot Pints
Quarts
25
30
30
35
35
40

Pineapple Hot Pints
Quarts
20
25
20
30
25
35

Plums Raw or
Hot
Pints
Quarts
25
30
30
35
35
40

Rhubarb Hot Pints
Quarts
20 20 25

Zuchinni-Pineapple Hot Half-Pints
or Pints
20 20 25

 

Processing Times and Pressures for Some Fruits in a Pressure Canner

Caution: As altitude increases, the processing times for each food listed below stays the same, but the canner pressure must be increased! In a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner

In a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner

 
Fruit Style of Pack Jar Size Processing Time (Minutes)
at a Given Pressure

Applesauce Hot Pints
Quarts
8
10

Apples Hot Pints or Quarts 8

Berries Hot
Raw
Pints or Quarts
Pints
Quarts
8
10
10

Cherries Hot

Raw

Pints
Quarts
Pints or Quarts
8
10
10

Fruit Purees Hot Pints or Quarts 8

Grapefruit or Oranges Hot
Raw
Pints or Quarts
Pints
Quarts
8
8
10

Peaches, Apricots, or Nectarines Hot or Raw Pints or Quarts 10

Pears Hot Pints or Quarts 10

Plums Hot or Raw Pints or Quarts 10

Rhubarb Hot Pints or Quarts 8

Canning Tomatoes and Tomato Products

Tomatoes have traditionally been canned in a boiling water bath (212° F). However, recent research shows that for some products, pressure canning will result in a high quality and more nutritious product.

Directions for canning a variety of tomato products are given on the following pages. Some recipes will give you the option of canning either in a pressure canner or in a boiling water bath. Some will give only boiling water bath times and others will give only pressure canning times. The recipes that specify only pressure canning have so many low acid ingredients added to them that they are only safe when canned in a pressure canner at the specified pressure.

Whether you're canning tomato products in a boiling water bath or in a pressure canner, be sure you're canning them safely. Read the general canning instructions.

Acidify Tomatoes and Tomato Products

Because tomatoes have pH values that fall close to 4.6, you must take some precautions to can them safely. First, select only disease-free, preferably vine-ripened, firm fruit for canning. Do not can tomatoes from dead or frost-killed vines. (Green tomatoes are more acidic than ripened tomatoes and can be canned safely using any of the directions given for tomatoes in this book.)

To ensure the safety of whole, crushed or juiced tomatoes; add acid, whether they will be processed in a boiling water bath or pressure canner. To acidify these tomatoes, add 1 tablespoon of bottled lemon juice or ¼ teaspoon citric acid per pint of tomatoes. For quarts, use 2 tablespoons of bottled lemon juice or ½ teaspoon citric acid.

The acid can be added directly to each jar before filling them, with the product. If this makes the produce taste too acid, add a little sugar to offset the taste.

NOTE: Four tablespoons of vinegar per quart or two tablespoons per pint can be used instead of lemon juice or citric acid. However, the vinegar may cause undesirable flavor changes.

Caution! Altitude Adjustments

The processing times and pressures given for canning tomatoes and tomato products are for an altitude of 0 - 1000 feet. If you are canning at a higher altitude, make the following adjustments:

In a Boiling Water Bath

See processing times in included table.

In a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner

As the altitude increases, the processing time for each food stays the same, but the canner pressure must be increased as follows:

In a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner

Tomatoes-Crushed

Hot Pack-Wash tomatoes and dip in boiling water for 30 to 60 seconds or until skins split. Then dip in cold water, slip off skins and remove cores. Trim off any bruised or discolored portions and quarter.

Heat about 1 pound of the quarters quickly in a large pot, crushing them with a wooden maeet or spoon as they are added to the pot. This will draw off some juice. Continue heating the tomatoes, stirring to prevent burning. Once the tomatoes are boiling, gradually add remaining quartered tomatoes, stirring constantly. These remaining tomatoes do not need to be crushed. They will soften with heating and stirring. Continue until all tomatoes are added. Then boil gently 5 minutes. Add bottled lemon juice or citric acid to hot jars according to the directions. Add ½ teaspoon salt to each pint jar; 1 teaspoon to each quart jar, if desired. Fill jars immediately with hot tomatoes, leaving ½-inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.
Option 1-Process in a Boiling Water Bath:

Pints.............................................................. 35 minutes

Quarts ...........................................................45 minutes
Option 2-Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints or Quarts ..............................................15 minutes

Tomatoes-Whole or Halved
(Packed in Water)

Wash tomatoes. Dip in boiling water for 30 to 60 seconds or until skins split. Then dip in cold water, slip off skins and remove cores. Leave whole or halve.

Raw Pack-Heat water, for packing tomatoes, to a boil. Add bottled lemon juice or citric acid to hot jars, according to the directions. Add ½ teaspoon salt to each pint jar; 1 teaspoon to each quart jar, if desired. Pack prepared tomatoes in hot jars, leaving ½-inch head space. Fill hot jars to ½-inch from the top with boiling water. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process as directed below.

Hot Pack-Place prepared tomatoes in saucepan and cover with water. Bring to a boil and boil gently for 5 minutes. Add bottled lemon juice or citric acid to hot jars, according to the directions. Add ½ teaspoon of salt to each pint jar; 1 teaspoon to each quart jar, if desired. Pack hot tomatoes in hot jars, leaving ½-inch head space. Fill jars to ½-inch from the top with hot cooking liquid. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.
Option 1-Process in a Boiling Water Bath:

Pints...............................................................40 minutes

Quarts ...........................................................45 minutes
Option 2-Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints or Quarts ..............................................10 minutes

Tomatoes-Whole or Halved
(No Added Liquid)

Raw Pack-Wash tomatoes. Dip in boiling water for 30 to 60 seconds or until skins split. Then dip in cold water, slip off skins and remove cores. Leave whole or halve. Add bottled lemon juice or citric acid to hot jars according to the directions. Add ½ teaspoon salt to each pint jar; 1 teaspoon salt to each quart, if desired. Fill jars with raw tomatoes, pressing until spaces between them fill with juice. Leave ½-inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.
Option 1 -Process in a Boiling Water Bath:

Pints or Quarts ..............................................85 minutes
Option 2-Process in a Dial-Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints or Quarts ..............................................25 minutes

Tomatoes-Whole or Halved
(Packed in Tomato Juice)

Wash tomatoes. Dip in boiling water for 30 to 60 seconds or until skins split. Then dip in cold water, slip off skins and remove cores. Leave whole or halve. Add bottled lemon juice or citric acid to hot jars, according to the directions. Add ½ teaspoon salt to each pint jar; I teaspoon to each quart jar, if desired.

Raw Pack-Heat tomato juice in a saucepan. Pack raw tomatoes in jars, leaving ½-inch head space. Cover tomatoes in the jars with hot tomato juice, again leaving ½-inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process as directed below.

Hot Pack-Place tomatoes in a large saucepan and add enough tomato juice to completely cover them. Boil tomatoes and juice gently for 5 minutes. Pack hot tomatoes in hot jars, leaving ½ inch head space. Add hot tomato juice to the jars to cover the tomatoes, again leaving ½-inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.
Option 1-Process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints or Quarts...............................................85 minutes
Option 2-Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints or Quarts ..............................................25 minutes

Tomato-Vegetable Mixtures

Unless a tested recipe is used, all tomato-vegetable mixtures must be processed in a pressure canner, according to the directions for the vegetable in the mixture that has the longest processing time.

Tomato-vegetable mixture recipes in this book may have shorter processing times because they have been tested for both pH and heat penetration. When the exact amounts specified in these recipes are used, these mixtures can be processed using the times given.

Tomatoes with Okra or Zucchini

Hot Pack-Wash tomatoes and okra or zucchini. Dip tomatoes in boiling water 30 to 60 seconds or until skins split. Then dip in cold water, slip off skins and remove cores. Quarter tomatoes. If using okra, trim stems and leave whole or slice into 1-inch pieces. If using zucchini, slice or cube. Bring tomatoes to a boil and simmer 10 minutes. Add okra or zucchini and boil gently 5 more minutes. Add ½ teaspoon of salt to each pint jar; 1 teaspoon to each quart jar, if desired. Fill hot jars with hot mixture, leaving 1-inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Variation-You may also add 4 or 5 pearl onions or two ¼-inch thick onion slices to each jar.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................30 minutes

Quarts............................................................35 minutes

Stewed Tomatoes
(about 3 pint jars)

2 quarts chopped tomatoes
¼ cup chopped green peppers
¼ cup chopped onions
2 teaspoons celery salt
2 teaspoons sugar
¼ teaspoon salt

Hot Pack-Combine all ingredients. Cover and cook 10 minutes, stirring occasionally to prevent sticking. Pour hot into hot jars, leaving ½-inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints ..............................................................15 minutes

Quarts............................................................20 minutes

Tomato Juice

Hot Pack-Wash tomatoes, remove stems, and trim off bruised or discolored portions. To prevent juice from separating, quickly cut about 1 pound of fruit into quarters and put directly into saucepan. Heat immediately to boiling while crushing. Continue to slowly add and crush freshly cut tomato quarters in the boiling mixture. Make sure the mixture boils constantly and vigorously while you add the remaining tomatoes. Simmer 5 minutes after you add all the pieces.

If you are not concerned about juice separation, simply slice or quarter tomatoes into a large saucepan. Crush, heat and simmer for 5 minutes before juicing.

Press the heated mixture through a sieve or food mill to remove skins and seeds. Add bottled lemon juice or citric acid to hot jars, according to the instructions. Heat juice again to boiling. Add ½ teaspoon salt to each pint jar; 1 teaspoon to each quart jar, if desired. Fill hot jars with hot tomato juice, leaving ½-inch head space. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.
Option I-Process in a Boiling Water Bath:

Pints...............................................................35 minutes

Quarts............................................................40 minutes
Option 2-Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints or Quarts...............................................15 minutes

Tomato-Vegetable Juice Blend

Hot Pack-Crush and simmer tomatoes as for making tomato juice, see above. Add no more than 3 cups of any combination of finely chopped celery onions, carrots and peppers for each 22 pounds of tomatoes. Simmer mixture 20 minutes. Press hot cooked tomatoes and vegetables through a sieve or food mill to remove skins and seeds. Add bottled lemon juice or citric acid to hot jars, according to the directions. Add ½ teaspoon salt to each pint jar; 1 teaspoon to each quart jar, if desired. Reheat tomato-vegetable juice blend to boiling and fill immediately into jars, leaving ½-inch head space. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.
Option 1-Process in a Boiling Water Bath:

Pints...............................................................35 minutes

Quarts............................................................40 minutes
Option 2-Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints or Quarts...............................................15 minutes

Tomato Sauce-Unseasoned

Hot Pack-Wash tomatoes, remove stems, and trim off bruised or discolored portions. To prevent juice from separating, quickly cut about 1 pound of fruit into quarters and put directly into saucepan. Heat immediately to boiling while crushing. Continue to slowly add crushed freshly cut tomato quarters to the boiling mixture. Make sure the mixture boils constantly and vigorously while you add the remaining tomatoes. Simmer 5 minutes after you add all pieces.

If you are not concerned about juice separation, simply slice or quarter tomatoes into a large saucepan. Crush, heat and simmer for 5 minutes before juicing.

Press the heated juice through a sieve or food mill to remove skins and seeds. Simmer in large-diameter saucepan until volume is reduced by about one-third for thin sauce; by one-half for thick sauce. Add bottled lemon juice or citric acid to jars, according to the directions. Add ½ teaspoon salt to each pint jar; 1 teaspoon to each quart jar, if desired. Fill hot jars, leaving ¼-inch head space. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.
Option I-Process in a Boiling Water Bath:

Pints...............................................................35 minutes

Quarts............................................................40 minutes
Option 2-Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints or Quarts..............................................15 minutes

Tomato Sauce-Seasoned
(about 5 half-pint jars)

10 pounds tomatoes, peeled, cored and chopped
3 medium onions, finely chopped
3 cloves garlic, minced
1 ½ teaspoons oregano
2 bay leaves
1 teaspoon salt
1 teaspoon black pepper
½ teaspoon crushed red pepper
1 teaspoon sugar

Hot Pack-Place all ingredients in a large saucepan. Bring to a boil. Simmer 2 hours, stirring occasionally. Press mixture through a food mill and discard seeds. Cook mixture until thick over medium-high heat, stirring frequently Add bottled lemon juice or citric acid to jars, according to the directions.

Pour hot sauce into jars, leaving ½-inch head space. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.
Option I-Process in a Boiling Water Bath:

Half Pints or Pints..........................................35 minutes
Option 2-Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Half Pints or Pints..........................................15 minutes

Mexican Tomato Sauce
(7 quart jars)

2½ to 3 pounds chile peppers
18 pounds tomatoes
3 cups chopped onions
1 tablespoon salt
1 tablespoon oregano
½ cup vinegar

To Prepare Chile Peppers-(CAUTION: Wear rubber gloves while handling chiles or wash hands thoroughly with soap and water before touching your face.) Wash and dry chiles. Slit each pepper on its side to allow steam to escape. Peel peppers using one of the following methods:

Allow peppers to cool. Place in a pan and cover with a damp cloth. This will make peeling the peppers easier. After several minutes, peel each pepper. Remove stem and seeds from peppers.

Hot Pack-Chop peppers. Wash tomatoes and dip in boiling water for 30 to 60 seconds or until skins split. Dip in cold water, slip off skins and remove cores. Coarsely chop tomatoes. Combine chopped tomatoes, peppers and remaining ingredients in large saucepan, Bring to a boil. Cover and simmer 10 minutes. Pour into hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................20 minutes

Quarts............................................................25 minutes

Tomato Paste
(about 9 half-pint jars)

8 quarts peeled, cored chopped tomatoes (about 4 dozen large)
1½ cups chopped sweet red peppers
(about 3)
2 bay leaves
1 teaspoon salt
1 clove garlic (optional)

Hot Pack-Combine first four ingredients and cook slowly 1 hour. Press through a fine sieve. Add garlic clove, if desired. Continue cooking slowly until thick enough to round up on a spoon, about 2½ hours. Stir frequently to prevent sticking. Remove garlic clove and bay leaves. Pour boiling hot paste into hot half-pint jars, leaving ¼-inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Boiling Water Bath:

Half-Pints.......................................................45 minutes

Tomato Catsup
(about 6 or 7 pint jars)

24 pounds ripe tomatoes
3 cups chopped onions
¾ teaspoon ground red pepper (cayenne)
4 teaspoons whole cloves
2 sticks cinnamon, crushed
1½ teaspoons whole allspice
3 tablespoons celery seeds
3 cups cider vinegar
1½ cups sugar
¼ cup salt

Hot Pack-Wash tomatoes. Dip in boiling water for 30 to 60 seconds or until skins split. Then dip in cold water, slip off skins and remove cores. Quarter tomatoes into 4-gallon pot. Add onions and red peppers. Bring to boil and simmer 20 minutes, uncovered. Combine spices in a spice bag. Place spices and vinegar in a 2-quart saucepan. Bring to boil. Cover, turn off heat and let stand for 20 minutes.

Remove spice bag from the vinegar and add the vinegar to the tomato mixture. Boil about 30 minutes. Press boiled mixture through a food min or sieve. Return to pot. Add sugar and salt and boil gently, stirring frequently until volume is reduced by one-half or until mixture rounds up on spoon without separation. Pour into hot pint jars, leaving 1/8-inch head space. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids.

Process in a Boiling Water Bath:

Pints...............................................................15 minutes

Blender Catsup
(about 9 pint jars)

24 pounds ripe tomatoes
2 pounds onions,

peeled and quartered
1 pound sweet red peppers
1 pound sweet green peppers
9 cups vinegar
9 cups sugar

¼ cup canning salt
3 tablespoons dry mustard
1½ tablespoons ground red pepper
1½ teaspoons whole allspice
1½ tablespoons whole cloves
3 sticks cinnamon

Hot Pack-Wash tomatoes and dip in boiling water for 30 to 60 seconds or until skins split. Then dip in cold water, slip off skins, core and quarter. Remove seeds from peppers and slice into strips. Blend tomatoes, peppers and onions at high speed for 5 seconds in electric blender. Pour into a 3 to 4-gallon pot and heat. Boil gently 60 minutes, stirring frequently. Add vinegar, sugar, salt and a spice bag containing dry mustard, red pepper and other spices. Continue boiling and stirring until volume is reduced one-half. Catsup should round up on a spoon with no separation of liquid and solids. Remove spice bag. Pour catsup into hot pint jars, leaving 1/8-inch head space. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Boiling Water Bath:

Pints...............................................................15 minutes

Country Western Catsup
(about 6 or 7 pint jars)

24 pounds ripe tomatoes
5 chile peppers
½ teaspoon ground red pepper (cayenne)
4 teaspoons paprika
4 teaspoons whole allspice
4 teaspoons dry mustard
1 tablespoon whole peppercorns
1 teaspoon mustard seeds
1 tablespoon bay leaves
2 2/3 cups vinegar
1¼ cups sugar
¼ cup salt

Hot Pack-Prepare chile peppers according to the directions in "Mexican Tomato Sauce". Slice peppers. Wash tomatoes. Dip in boiling water for 30 to 60 seconds or until skins split. Then dip in cold water, slip off skins and remove cores. Quarter tomatoes. Place in 4-gallon pot. Add peppers. Bring to boil and simmer 20 minutes, uncovered. Combine spices in a spice bag. Place spices and vinegar in a 2-quart saucepan. Bring to boil. Turn off heat and let stand.

When tomato mixture has cooked 20 minutes, remove spice bag from the vinegar and add the vinegar to the tomato mixture. Boil about 30 minutes. Press boiled mixture through a food mill or sieve. Return to pot. Add sugar and salt. Boil gently, stirring frequently, until volume is reduced by one-half or until mixture rounds up on spoon without separation. Pour into hot pint jars, leaving 1/8-inch head space. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Boiling Water Bath

Pints...............................................................15 minutes

Hot Chile Salsa
(about 7 pint jars)

5 pounds tomatoes
2 pounds chile peppers
1 pound onions, chopped
1 cup vinegar
3 teaspoons salt
½ teaspoon pepper

Hot Pack-Prepare chile peppers according to the directions in "Mexican Tomato Sauce,". Chop peppers. Wash tomatoes and dip in boiling water for 30 to 60 seconds or until skins split. Dip in cold water, slip off skins and remove cores. Coarsely chop tomatoes. Add chopped onions, peppers and remaining ingredients in a large saucepan. Heat to a boil and simmer 10 minutes. Pour into hot pint jars, leaving ½-inch head space. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Boiling Water Bath:

Pints...............................................................15 minutes

Barbecue Sauce
(about 4 pint jars)

4 quarts peeled, cored, chopped red-ripe tomatoes (about 24 large)
2 cups chopped celery
2 cups chopped onions
½ cups chopped sweet red or green peppers (about 3 medium)
2 hot red peppers, cored, and chopped
2 cloves garlic, crushed
1 cup brown sugar
1 tablespoon dry mustard
1 tablespoon paprika
1 tablespoon salt
1 teaspoon black peppercorns
1 teaspoon Tabasco Sauce
1/8 teaspoon cayenne pepper
1 cup vinegar

Hot Pack-Combine tomatoes, onions, celery and peppers. Cook until vegetables are soft (about 30 minutes). Puree using a fine sieve, food mill, food processor or blender. Cook until mixture is reduced to about one half, (about 45 minutes). Tie peppercorns in a cheesecloth bag; add with remaining ingredients and cook slowly until mixture is the consistency of catsup, about 1½ to 2 hours. As mixture thickens, stir frequently to prevent sticking. Remove bag of peppercorns. Pour hot sauce into hot jars, leaving ½-inch head space. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Boiling Water Bath:

Half-Pints or Pints..........................................20 minutes

Spicy Chili Sauce
(about 6 pint jars)

4 quarts peeled, cored, chopped red-ripe tomatoes (about 24 large)
2 cups chopped onions
1 ½ to 2 cups chopped sweet green peppers (about 3 medium)
1 ½ cups sugar
1 tablespoon salt
1 tablespoon celery seed
1 teaspoon ground allspice
1 teaspoon ground cloves
1 teaspoon ground cinnamon
1 teaspoon ground ginger
1 to 1 ½ cups vinegar

Hot Pack-Combine all ingredients. Bring to a boil; simmer until thick as desired (about 1 to 2 hours). Stir frequently to prevent sticking. Pour hot sauce into hot jars, leaving ½-inch head space. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Boiling Water Bath:

Half-Pints or Pints........................................15 minutes

Spaghetti Sauce Without Meat
(about 9 pint jars)

30 pounds tomatoes
1 cup chopped onions
5 cloves garlic, minced
1 cup chopped celery or green pepper
1 pound fresh mushrooms, sliced (optional)
¼ cup vegetable oil
2 tablespoons oregano
4 tablespoons minced parsley
2 teaspoons black pepper
4 ½ teaspoons salt
¼ cup brown sugar

Hot Pack-(CAUTION: Do not increase the proportion of onions, peppers or mushrooms.) Wash tomatoes and dip in boiling water for 30 to 60 seconds or until skins split. Dip in cold water and slip off skins. Remove cores and quarter tomatoes. Boil tomatoes for 20 minutes, uncovered, in large saucepan. Press through food mill or sieve.

Saute onions, garlic, celery or peppers, and mushrooms (if desired) in vegetable oil until tender. Combine sauteed vegetables and tomatoes and add remaining spices, salt and sugar. Bring to a boil. Simmer, uncovered, stirring frequently until thick enough for serving. (The volume will have been reduced by nearly one-half.) Pour into hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints............................................................... 20 minutes

Quarts............................................................ 25 minutes

Spaghetti Sauce with Meat
(about 9 pint jars)

30 pounds tomatoes
2½ pounds ground beef or sausage
5 cloves garlic, minced
1 cup chopped onions
1 cup chopped celery or green peppers
1 pound fresh mushrooms, sliced (optional)
2 tablespoons oregano
4 tablespoons minced parsley
2 teaspoons black pepper
4½ teaspoons salt
¼ cup brown sugar

Hot Pack-Wash tomatoes and dip in boiling water for 30 to 60 seconds or until skins split. Dip in cold water and slip off skins. Remove cores and quarter tomatoes. Boil tomatoes for 20 minutes, uncovered in a large saucepan. Press through a food mill or sieve.

Sautee beef or sausage until brown. Add garlic, onion, celery or green pepper and mushrooms, if desired. Cook until vegetables are tender. Combine with tomato pulp in large saucepan. Add spices, salt and sugar. Bring to a boil. Simmer, uncovered, stirring frequently until thick enough for serving. (The volume should be reduced by nearly one-half.) Pour into hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................60 minutes

Quarts............................................................70 minutes


Boiling Water Bath Processing Times for Tomatoes
and Tomato Products at Altitudes Over 1000 Feet


Product Style of
Pack
Jar Size 1001-3000 ft. 3001-6000 ft. Over 6000 ft.

Tomatoes -
crushed
Hot Pints
Quarts
40
50
45
55
50
60

Tomatoes -
Whole or Halved
(Packed in Water)
Raw or Hot Pints
Quarts
45
50
50
55
55
60

Tomatoes -
Whole or Halved
No Added Liquid)
Raw Pints or Quarts 90 95 100

Tomatoes -
Whole or Halved
(Packed in Tomato Juice)
Raw or Hot Pints or Quarts 90 95 100

Tomato Juice Hot Pints
Quarts
40
45
45
50
50
55

Tomato-Vegetable
Juice Blend
Hot Pints
Quarts
40
45
45
50
50
55

Tomato Sauce -
Unseasoned
Hot Pints
Quarts
40
45
45
50
50
55

Tomato Sauce -
Seasoned
Hot Pints
Quarts
40
45
45
50
50
55

Tomato Paste Hot Half-Pints 50 55 60

Tomato Catsup Hot Pints 20 20 25

Blender Catsup Hot Pints 20 20 25

Country Western
Catsup
Hot Pints 20 20 25

Chile Salsa Hot Pints 20 20 25

Barbecue Sauce Hot Half-Pints
or Pints
25 30 35

Spicy Chili
Sauce
Hot Half-Pints
or Pints
20 20 25

Canning Vegetables

Vegetables must be canned in a pressure canner at the appropriate pressure, to guarantee their safety If they are not canned at the appropriate pressure, the canned vegetable could contain the deadly botulism toxin.

To make sure you can vegetables safely use the directions given for each vegetable, on the following pages.

Salt-Free Canning-Any vegetable may be canned without salt. Salt is used only for flavor and is not needed to prevent spoilage.

Caution! Altitude Adjustments

The processing times given for canning vegetables are for altitudes of 0-1000 feet. If you are canning at a higher altitude, the processing times stay the same, but you must make the following adjustments:

In a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner

In a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner

Asparagus

Use tender, tight tipped spears, 4 to 6 inches long. Wash thoroughly trim off scales and tough ends; wash again. Cut into 1-inch pieces or leave whole.

Hot Pack-Cover asparagus with boiling water; boil 2 or 3 minutes. Pack hot into hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints; 1 teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Fill jar to 1 inch from top with boiling hot cooking liquid or water. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process as directed below.

Raw Pack-Pack asparagus tightly into hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints; 1 teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Fill jar to 1 inch from top with boiling water. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................30 minutes

Quarts............................................................40 minutes

Beans-Dry

Select mature dry beans. Sort out and discard any defective or discolored beans. To rehydrate the beans use one of the following methods: (1) Place the beans in a large pot, cover with water and let stand in a cool place for 12 to 18 hours. Then drain. (2) Cover beans with boiling water in a saucepan and boil 2 minutes. Remove from heat and soak 1 hour. Then drain.

Hot Pack-Pack hot beans into hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints; 1 teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Fill jar to 1 inch from top with boiling water. Remove air bubbles. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................75 minutes

Quarts............................................................90 minutes

Beans-Dry with Tomato or Molasses Sauce

Select mature, dry beans, sort out and discard any defective or discolored beans.

To Prepare Beans-Wash beans. Add 3 cups of water for each cup of dried beans. Boil 2 minutes and remove from heat. Soak 1 hour, drain, discarding liquid. Reheat beans to boiling in fresh water. Use this cooking liquid, if needed, to make one of the following sauces:

Tomato Sauce Recipe 1-Mix 1 quart tomato juice, 3 tablespoons sugar, 2 teaspoons salt, 1 tablespoon chopped onion and ¼ teaspoon each of ground cloves, allspice, mace and cayenne. Heat to boiling.

Tomato Sauce Recipe 2-Mix 1 cup tomato catsup with 3 cups of water or soaking liquid from beans and heat to boiling.

Molasses Sauce-Mix 1 quart water or cooking liquid from beans, 3 tablespoons dark molasses, 1 tablespoon vinegar, 2 teaspoons salt and ¾ teaspoon powdered dry mustard. Heat to boiling.

Hot Pack-Fill hot jars ¾ full with hot beans. Add a ¾-inch cube of pork, ham or bacon, if desired. Fill jar 1 inch from top with heated sauce. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................75 minutes

Quarts ...........................................................90 minutes

Beans-Baked

Soak and boil beans and prepare molasses sauce as directed for "Dry Beans with Tomato or Molasses Sauce,". Place seven ¾-inch cubes of pork, ham or bacon in a large casserole or pan. Add beans and enough molasses sauce to cover the beans.Cover casserole or pan and bake at 350° F for 4 to 5 hours. Check each hour and add more liquid if needed. Fill jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process as directed for "Dry Beans with Tomato or Molasses Sauce."

Beans-Green
(Snap, Wax or Italian)

Select tender, crisp pods. Remove and discard diseased and rusty pods. Wash beans and trim ends. Break or cut into 1-inch pieces or leave whole.

Hot Pack-Cover beans with boiling water; boil 5 minutes. Pack hot beans into hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints; 1 teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Fill jar to 1 inch from top with boiling hot cooking liquid. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process as directed below.

Raw Pack-Pack beans tightly into hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints; 1 teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Fill jar to 1 inch from top with boiling water. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................20 minutes

Quarts............................................................25 minutes

Beans-Lima, Butter, Pintos or Soy

Select young, tender well-filled pods with green seeds (beans). Discard insect and disease damaged beans. Shell and wash beans thoroughly.

Hot Pack-Cover beans with boiling water; bring to a boil. Boil 3 minutes. Pack hot beans loosely into hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints; 1 teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Fill jar to 1 inch from top with boiling hot cooking liquid. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process as directed below.

Raw Pack-Pack beans loosely into hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space for pints. For quarts, leave 1½ inches if beans are small; 1¼ inches if they are large. Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints; 1 teaspoon to quarts if desired. Fill with boiling water, again leaving the head space given above. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................40 minutes

Quarts............................................................50 minutes

Beets

Beets with a diameter of 1 to 2 inches are preferred for whole packs. Beets larger than 3 inches in diameter are often fibrous.

Cut off beet tops, leaving an inch of stem and root to reduce color loss. Scrub well. Cover with boiling water. Boil until skins slip off easily; about 15 to 25 minutes, depending on size. Cool, remove skins and trim off root and stem. Leave baby beets whole. Cut medium or large beets into ½-inch cubes or slices. Halve or quarter very large slices. Pack into hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints; 1 teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Fill jar to 1 inch from top with boiling water. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................30 minutes

Quarts............................................................35 minutes

Carrots

Select small carrots, preferably 1 to 1¼ inches in diameter. Large carrots are often too fibrous. Wash, peel and rewash carrots. Slice or dice.

Hot Pack-Cover carrots with water and bring to a boil. Simmer 5 minutes. Pack hot into hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints; 1 teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Fill jar to 1 inch from top with boiling water. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................25 minutes

Quarts............................................................30 minutes

Corn-Cream-Style

Select ears containing slightly immature kernels of ideal quality for eating. Remove corn husks and silk; wash ears. Blanch ears 4 minutes in boiling water. Cut corn from cob at center of kernel. Scrape remaining corn from cobs with a table knife. CAUTION: Quart jars are not recommended due to the denseness of the canned product.

Hot Pack-Add 1 cup boiling water to each 2 cups of corn. Heat to a boil and simmer 3 minutes. Pack hot corn into hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space, Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints, if desired. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................85 minutes

Corn-Whole Kernel

Select ears containing slightly immature kernels of ideal quality for eating fresh. Canning some sweeter varieties of kernels that are too immature may cause browning. However, this does not affect the safety of the product. If unsure of variety can a small amount, check color and flavor before canning large quantities. Remove corn husks and silk; wash ears. Blanch 3 minutes in boiling water. Cut corn from cob at about three fourths the depth of kernel. Do not scrape cob.

Hot Pack-Add 1 cup boiling water to each 4 cups of corn and bring to a boil. Simmer 5 minutes. Pack hot corn into hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints; 1 teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Fill jar to 1 inch from top with boiling hot cooking liquid. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process as directed below.

Raw Pack-Pack corn into hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints; 1 teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Fill jars to 1 inch from top with boiling water. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................55 minutes

Quarts............................................................85 minutes

Greens-Including Spinach

Greens may be canned, however, freezing results in a better product. Can only freshly harvested greens. Discard wilted, discolored, diseased or insect-damaged leaves. Leaves should be tender and attractive in color.

Hot Pack-Wash thoroughly in several changes of water. Cut out tough stems and midribs. Blanch 1 pound of greens at a time, until well wilted (about 3 to 5 minutes). Pack hot greens loosely into hot jars, leaving 1 inch head space. Add ¼ teaspoon salt to pints; ½ teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Fill jars to 1 inch from top with boiling water. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................70 minutes

Quarts............................................................90 minutes

Lye Hominy
(about 6 quart jars)

Hot Pack-Prepare lye hominy in a well ventilated room. Place 2 quarts of dry field corn in an enamel pan; add 8 quarts of water and 2 ounces of lye. Boil vigorously for 30 minutes, then allow to stand for 20 minutes. Rinse off lye with several hot water rinses. Follow with cold water rinses to cool for handling. It is very important to rinse the corn thoroughly.

Work hominy with hands until the dark tips of kernels are loosened from the rest of the kernel (about 5 minutes). Separate the tips from the corn by floating them off in water or by placing the corn in a coarse sieve and washing thoroughly.

Add sufficient water to cover the hominy by about 1 inch. Boil 5 minutes and change the water. Repeat four times. Cook until the kernels are soft (30 to 45 minutes) and drain. Pack hot hominy into hot jars, leaving 1 inch head space. Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints; 1 teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Fill jars to 1 inch from top with boiling water. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................60 minutes

Quarts............................................................70 minutes

Mixed Vegetables

Hot Pack-Select your favorite mixture of vegetables, except greens, dried beans, cream-style corn, squash or sweet potatoes. (Equal portions of carrots, whole kernel sweet corn, green beans, lima beans, tomatoes and diced zucchini make a good mix.) Prepare each vegetable as for canning and cut into the desired sizes. Mix vegetables together, cover with boiling water and bring back to a boil. Boil 5 minutes. Pack hot vegetables into hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints; 1 teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Fill jars to 1 inch from top with boiling water. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................75 minutes

Quarts............................................................90 minutes

Mushrooms

Select brightly colored, small to medium-size domestic mushrooms. For canning, they should have short stems, tight veils (unopened caps) and no discoloration. CAUTION: Do not can wild mushrooms.

Hot Pack-Trim stems. Soak in cold water 10 minutes to remove dirt. Wash in clean water. Leave small ones whole; cut larger ones. Cover with water in a saucepan and boil 5 minutes. Pack hot into hot half-pint or pint jars leaving 1-inch head space. Add ¼ teaspoon salt to half-pints; ½ teaspoon salt to pints, if desired. For better color, add 1/8 teaspoon (375 mg) ascorbic acid per pint. Fill jars to 1 inch from top with boiling water. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Half-Pints or Pints.........................................45 minutes

Okra

Select young, tender pods. Discard diseased and rust-spotted pods.

Hot Pack-Wash pods and trim ends. Leave whole or cut into 1-inch pieces. Cover with hot water in a saucepan. Boil 2 minutes and drain. Pack hot okra into hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints; 1 teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Fill jars to 1 inch from top with boiling water. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................25 minutes

Quarts............................................................40 minutes

Onions

Hot Pack-Use onions of 1 -inch diameter or less. Wash and peel onions. Cover onions with boiling water; bring to a boil. Boil 5 minutes. Pack the onions into hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints; 1 teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Fill jar to within 1 inch from top with boiling water. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints or Quarts...............................................40 minutes

Parsnips

Parsnips may be canned; however, freezing results in a better product. Follow the preparation procedures and processing times recommended for turnips.

Peas-Blackeye, Crowder or Field

Shell and wash peas well.

Hot Pack-Cover peas with boiling water; boil 3 minutes. Pack peas loosely into hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space for pints; 1½-inches for quarts. Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints; 1 teaspoon salt to quarts, if desired. Fill jar with boiling hot cooking liquid again leaving the head space given above. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process as directed below.

Raw Pack-Pack peas loosely into hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space for pints; 1½-inches for quarts. Do not shake or press down. Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints; 1 teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Fill jar with boiling water, leaving the head space given above. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................40 minutes

Quarts............................................................50 minutes

Peas-Dry
(All Varieties)

Follow preparation procedures and processing times recommended for dry beans.

Peas-Green or English

Select well-filled pods containing young, tender, sweet peas. Discard diseased pods. Shell and wash peas.

Hot Pack-Cover peas with water, in a saucepan. Bring to a rolling boil and boil 2 minutes. Pack hot peas loosely into hot jars; leaving 1 inch head space. Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints; 1 teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Fill jar to 1 inch from top with boiling hot cooking liquid. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process as directed below.

Raw Pack-Pack peas into hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Do not shake or press down. Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints; 1 teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Fill jars to 1 inch from top with boiling water. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints or Quarts...............................................40 minutes

Peppers-Hot or Sweet
(Including Bell, Chile, Jalapeno and Pimiento)

Select firm yellow, red and green peppers, Do not use soft or diseased peppers. Wash and drain peppers.

Preparation of Chile and Other Tough-Skinned Peppers-See directions in "Mexican Tomato Sauce".

Preparation of Pimento Peppers- Scald peppers in boiling water (about 10 to 20 minutes) or roast in a 400° F oven (about 6 to 8 minutes) until the skins can be rubbed off. Remove skins, stems, blossom ends and seeds. Flatten pimientos.

Preparation of Other Peppers-Remove stems and seeds, blanch 3 minutes.

Hot Pack-Small peppers can be left whole; large peppers quartered. Pack peppers in hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Add ½ teaspoon salt per pint, if desired.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................35 minutes

New Potatoes-White

Select small to medium-size mature potatoes of ideal quality for eating. Tubers stored below 45° F may discolor when canned. For packing whole, choose potatoes 1 to 2 inches in diameter.

Hot Pack-Wash and peel potatoes. If desired, cut into ½-inch cubes. Place in a solution of 1 teaspoon (3000 mg) ascorbic acid and I gallon water, to prevent darkening. Drain. Place potatoes in saucepot of hot water, bring to a boil and boil whole potatoes for 10 minutes; cubes for 2 minutes. Drain. Pack hot potatoes in hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints; 1 teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Fill jars to 1 inch from top with fresh boiling water. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................35 minutes

Quarts............................................................40 minutes

Potatoes-Sweet

Choose small to medium-sized potatoes. They should be mature, but not too fibrous. Can within 1 to 2 months after harvest.

Hot Pack-Wash sweet potatoes and boil or steam until partially soft (15 to 20 minutes). Cool only enough to handle and remove skins. Cut medium potatoes if needed, so that pieces are uniform in size. CAUTION: Do not mash or puree pieces.

Pack potatoes into hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints; 1 teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Fill jar to within 1 inch of top with boiling water or boiling sugar syrup. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................65 minutes

Quarts............................................................90 minutes

Pumpkin

Pumpkins should have a hard rind and stringless, mature pulp. They should be ideal for cooking fresh. Small pumpkins (sugar or pie pumpkins) make better products.

Hot Pack-Wash pumpkin and remove seeds. Cut into 1-inch slices and peel. Cut flesh into 1-inch cubes. Add to a saucepot of boiling water, boil 2 minutes. CAUTION: Do not mash or puree.

Pack hot cubes into hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Fill jar to 1 inch from top with boiling hot cooking liquid. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................55 minutes

Quarts............................................................90 minutes

Squash-Winter (Acorn, Banana, Buttercup, Butternut, Golden Delicious or Hubbard)

NOTE: Because its flesh does not stay cubed on heating, spaghetti squash should be frozen instead of canned.

Succotash
(about 6 pint jars)

7½ pounds unhusked sweet corn
or 1½ quarts cut whole kernels
1 quart crushed
or whole tomatoes (optional)
7 pounds mature green
lima beans in the pod
or 2 quarts
shelled limas

Wash and prepare each food for canning (see directions for each specific item).

Hot Pack-Combine prepared vegetables in a large saucepot. Add enough hot water to cover. Bring to a boil and simmer 5 minutes. Pack succotash into jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints; 1 teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Fill jar to 1 inch from top with hot cooking liquid. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process as directed below.

Raw Pack-Mix prepared vegetables together and pack into jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints; 1 teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Fill jar to 1 inch from top with boiling water. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................60 minutes

Quarts............................................................85 minutes

Turnips (Root)

Hot Pack-Wash turnips, scrubbing well. Peel, slice or dice. Place turnips in a saucepan, cover with boiling water and boil 5 minutes. Drain. Pack hot into hot jars,leaving 1-inch head space. Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints; 1 teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Fill jar to 1 inch from top with boiling hot cooking liquid. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................30 minutes

Quarts............................................................35 minutes

Canning Meat, Poultry and Game

Meat, poultry and game are low acid foods. They must be processed in a pressure canner to assure their safety. Use the processing time and pressure that is specified for each type of meat, poultry or game.

To Make Broth-Place bony pieces in saucepan and cover with cold water. Simmer until meat is tender. Discard any fat. Add boiling broth to containers packed with precooked meat or poultry.

Caution! Altitude Adjustments

Processing times and pressures given for canning meat, poultry and game are for altitudes of 0-1000 feet. If you are canning at a higher altitude, follow the altitude adjustments given for canning vegetables.

Meat Strips, Cubes or Chunks (Bear, Beef, Veal, Lamb, Pork or Venison)

Choose high quality, chilled meat. Remove excess fat. Strong-flavored wild meats should be soaked for 1 hour in a brine made from I tablespoon salt per quart of water. Rinse meat. Cut into 1-inch wide strips, cubes or chunks.

Hot Pack-Pre-cook meat to the rare stage, by roasting, stewing or browning in a small amount of fat. Pack hot meat loosely into hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints; 1 teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Fill jar to 1 inch from top with boiling meat juices, broth, water or tomato juice (especially for wild game). Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process as directed below.

Raw Pack-Add ½ teaspoon salt to each pint jar; 1 teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Pack raw meat in hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Do not add liquid. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................75 minutes

Quarts............................................................90 minutes

Ground or Chopped Meat (Bear, Beef, Veal, Lamb, Pork, Mutton, Sausage or Venison)

Freezing gives a much higher quality product. However, if canning is desired, choose fresh, chilled meat. For venison, add one part high-quality pork fat to three or four parts venison before grinding. For sausage, use freshly made sausage, seasoned with salt and cayenne pepper (sage may cause a bitter off-flavor).

Hot Pack-Shape ground meat or sausage into patties or balls or cut cased sausage into 3- to 4-inch links. Cook until lightly browned. Ground meat also may be sauteed without shaping. Remove excess fat. Pack hot meat loosely into hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Fill jars to 1 inch from top with boiling meat broth, water or tomato juice. Add ½ teaspoon salt per pint; 1 teaspoon per quart, if desired. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................75 minutes

Quarts............................................................90 minutes

Poultry (Chicken, Duck, Goose, Turkey or Game Birds)

Choose freshly killed and dressed poultry or game birds. Strong flavored game birds (especially water fowl) can be soaked for 1 hour in a brine made from 1 tablespoon salt and 1 quart of water. Rinse. (NOTE: If you soak game birds, don't add salt when filling the jars.) Dressed poultry and game birds should be chilled for 6 to 12 hours before canning. Rinse poultry or game birds, remove excess fat and cut meat into suitable sizes for canning. The meat may be canned with or without bones.

Hot Pack-Boil, steam or bake meat until about two-thirds done. Fill hot jars with meat, leaving 1¼-inch head space. Add ½ teaspoon salt to pints; 1 teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Fill jars to 1¼ inch from top with hot broth. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process as directed below.

Raw Pack-Add ½ teaspoon salt to each pint jar; 1 teaspoon to quarts, if desired. Fill hot jars loosely with raw meat, leaving 1 ¼-inch head space. Do not add liquid. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Without Bones-Pints.....................................75 minutes

Without Bones-Quarts..................................90 minutes

With Bones-Pints..........................................65 minutes

With Bones-Quarts.......................................75 minutes

Rabbit

Soak meat 1 hour in brine made by dissolving I tablespoon salt per quart of water. Rinse.

Use preparation procedures and processing times recommended for poultry omitting the salt.

Squirrel

Soak meat 1 hour in brine made by dissolving 1 tablespoon salt per quart of water. Rinse.

Use preparation procedures and processing times recommended for poultry omitting the salt.

Canning Seafood

Seafoods are low acid foods. They must be processed in a pressure canner to assure their safety. Use the processing time and pressure that is specified for each type of seafood.

Caution! Altitude Adjustments

The processing times and pressures given for canning seafood are for altitudes of 0-1000 feet. If you are canning at a higher altitude, follow the altitude adjustments given for canning vegetables.

Clams

Hot Pack-Keep clams live on ice until ready to can. Scrub shells thoroughly and rinse. Steam 5 minutes. Open clams, removing clam meat and saving the juice. Wash clam meat in water containing 1 teaspoon of salt per quart. Rinse. In saucepan, cover clam meat with boiling water containing 2 tablespoons of lemon juice or ½ teaspoon of citric acid per gallon. Boil 2 minutes and drain. To make minced clams, grind clams with a meat grinder or food processor. Pack clams loosely into hot halfpint or pint jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Pour hot clam juice over clams. Add more boiling water if needed, to leave 1-inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Half-Pints.......................................................60 minutes

Pints...............................................................70 minutes

Crab

Blue crabs should be frozen for best quality King and Dungeness crabs may be canned by the following method:

Hot Pack-Keep live crabs on ice until ready to can. Wash crabs thoroughly using several changes of cold water. Simmer crabs 20 minutes in water containing ¼ cup of lemon juice and 2 tablespoons of salt (or up to 1 cup of salt, if desired) per gallon. Cool in cold water and drain. Remove back shell. Then remove meat from body and claws. Soak meat 2 minutes in cold water containing 2 cups of lemon juice or 4 cups of white vinegar, and 2 tablespoons of salt (or up to 1 cup of salt, if desired) per gallon. Drain and squeeze meat to remove excess moisture. Fill hot half-pint jars with 6 ounces of meat and pint jars with 12 ounces, leaving 1-inch head space. Add ½ teaspoon of citric acid or 2 tablespoons of lemon juice to each half-pint jar; 1 teaspoon of citric acid or 4 tablespoons of lemon juice per pint jar. Add hot water, leaving 1-inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Half-Pints.......................................................70 minutes

Pints...............................................................80 Minutes

Fish
(except Tuna)

Remove internal organs from fish within 2 hours after they're caught. Keep cleaned fish on ice until ready to can.

NOTE: Glass-like crystals of magnesium ammonium phosphate sometimes form in canned salmon. There is no way for the home canner to prevent these crystals from forming, but they usually dissolve when heated and are safe to eat.

Raw Pack-Remove head, tail, fins and scales. Wash and remove all blood. Split fish lengthwise, if desired. Cut cleaned fish into 3½-inch lengths. Pack fish into hot pint jars, skin side next to glass, leaving 1-inch head space. Add 1 teaspoon of salt per pint, if desired. Do not add liquid. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................100 minutes

Oysters

Hot Pack-Keep live oysters on ice until ready to can. Wash shells. Heat 5 to 7 minutes in preheated oven at 400° F. Cool briefly in ice water. Drain, open shells, and remove oyster meat. Wash oysters in water containing ½ cup salt per gallon. Drain. Pack oysters into hot half-pint or pint jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Add ¼ teaspoon salt to half-pint jars; ½ teaspoon to pints, if desired. Fill jar to 1 inch from top with hot water. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Half-Pints or Pints.........................................75 minutes

Canning Soups

Soups containing vegetables and meat are low acid products. They must be processed in a pressure canner to assure their safety Use the processing time and pressure specified for each type of soup.

Caution! Altitude Adjustments

The processing times and pressures given for canning soups are for altitudes of 0-1000 feet. If you are canning at a higher altitude, follow the altitude adjustments given for canning vegetables.

Beef Stock (Broth)

Hot Pack-Saw or crack fresh trimmed beef bones to enhance extraction of flavor. Rinse bones and place in a large stockpot. Cover bones with water. Place cover on pot and simmer 3 to 4 hours. Remove bones. Cool broth, skim off and discard fat. Remove meat from bones and add to broth. Reheat broth to boiling. Fill hot jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................20 minutes

Quarts............................................................25 minutes

Chicken Stock (Broth)

Hot Pack-Place large carcass bones in a large stockpot. Add enough water to cover bones. Cover pot and simmer until meat can be easily stripped from bones, about 30 to 45 minutes. Remove bones, cool broth and discard excess fat. Remove meat from bones and add to broth. Reheat to boiling. Fill jars, leaving 1-inch head space. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................20 minutes

Quarts............................................................25 minutes

Vegetable Soups

Hot Pack-Choose your favorite soup ingredients. Prepare each as you would for a hot pack in canning. Cooked meat or poultry can also be added, if desired. Combine ingredients with hot water, tomato juice or broth. CAUTION: Do not thicken or add milk.

Add salt to taste, if desired. Fill hot jars halfway with solid mixture. Continue filling with hot liquid, leaving 1-inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...............................................................60 minutes

Quarts............................................................75 minutes

NOTE: Cooked seafood can also be added as part of the solid mixture, but the jars must be processed as follows:

Pints or Quarts.............................................100 minutes

Canning Pie Fillings

The following pie fillings are excellent, safe products when processed according to the directions in each recipe. Each canned quart makes one 8-to 9-inch pie.

The recipes for fruit pie fillings all use a modified food starch called Clear Jel®. This starch produces the correct thickening, even after the fillings are canned and baked. Other starches, such as corn starch, break down and result in runny filling. Check the canning and freezing supply area of your store for Clear Jel®. If it is not available there, contact your county Extension agent for information on how you can obtain it.

Because the variety of fruit may alter the flavor of the fruit pie, can a trial quart and make a pie with it. Then adjust the sugar and spices in the recipe to suit your personal preferences. The amount of lemon juice should not be altered, because it helps with the safety and storage stability of the fillings.

Caution! Altitude Adjustments

The processing times and pressures given for canning pie fillings are for altitudes of 0-1000 feet. If you are canning at a higher altitude, follow these altitude adjustments:

  Apple Pie Filling

  Ingredients Needed For
  1 Quart Jar
7 Quart Jars
Blanched sliced apples
Sugar
Clear Jel®
Cinnamon
Nutmeg (optional)
Cold Water
Apple Juice
Yellow food coloring (optional)
Bottled lemon juice
3½ cups
¾ + 2 Tbsp.
¼ cup
½ teaspoon
1/8 teaspoon
½ cup
¾ cup
1 drop
2 tablespoons
6 quarts
5½ cups
1½ cups
1 tablespoon
1 teaspoon
2½ cups
5 cups
7 drops
¾ cup

Use firm, crisp apples. Stayman, Golden Delicious, Rome and other varieties of similar quality are suitable. If apples lack tartness, use additional ¼ cup of lemon juice for each 6 quarts of sliced apples.

Hot Pack-Wash, peel and core apples. Cut apples into slices, ½ inch wide. Place in an anti-darkening solution. Remove from antidarkening solution, and drain well. To blanch the fruit, place 6 cups at a time in one gallon of boiling water. Boil each batch for one minute after the water returns to a boil. Remove fruit from blanch water, but keep the hot fruit in a covered bowl or pot while the Clear Jel® mixture is prepared. Combine sugar, Clear Jel®, cinnamon and nutmeg in a large saucepot with water, apple juice and food coloring. Stir and cook on medium high heat until mixture thickens and begins to bubble. Add lemon juice to the boiling mixture and boil 1 minute, stirring constantly. Immediately fold in drained apple slices and fill hot jars with hot mixture. Leave 1-inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process immediately in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints or Quarts..................................................................25 minutes

Blueberry Pie Filling

  Ingredients Needed For
  1 Quart Jar
7 Quart Jars
Fresh blueberries
Sugar
Clear Jel®
Cold water
Blue food coloring (optional)
Red food coloring (optional)
Bottled lemon juice
3½ cups
¾ cup + 2 Tbsp.
1/4 cup + 1 Tbsp.
1 cup
3 drops
1 drop
3½ teaspoons
6 quarts
6 cups
2¼ cups
7 cups
20 drops
7 drops
½ cup

Hot Pack-Wash and drain blueberries. To blanch, follow the directions for apple pie filling given above. Combine sugar and Clear Jel® in a large saucepot. Stir. Add water and food coloring. Cook on medium high heat until mixture thickens and begins to bubble. Add lemon juice and boil 1 minute, stirring constantly Fold in drained berries immediately. Fill jars with mixture without delay leaving 1-inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process immediately in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints or Quarts..................................................................30 minutes
NOTE: Frozen blueberries can be used in the above recipe. Follow the same basic recipe, making the following adjustment. Select unsweetened frozen blueberries if possible. If sweetened fruit is used, rinse the fruit while it is still frozen. As the fruit thaws, collect any juice and use it for part of the water specified in the recipe. Use ¼ cup Clear Jel® for one quart; 1¾ cups for seven quarts.

Cherry Pie Filling
  Ingredients Needed For
  1 Quart Jar
7 Quart Jars
Fresh sour cherries
Sugar
Clear Jel®
Cinnamon (optional)
Cold water
Red food coloring (optional)
Almond extract (optional)
Bottled lemon juice
3 1/3 cups
1 cup
¼ cup + 1 Tbsp.
1/8 teaspoon
1 1/3 cups
6 drops
¼ teaspoon
1 Tbsp. + 1 tsp.
6 quarts
7 cups
1¾ cups
1 teaspoon
9 1/3 cups
¼ teaspoon
2 teaspoons
½ cup

Hot Pack-Select very ripe, firm cherries. Rinse and prevent stem end browning, place in an anti-darkening solution. To blanch, follow the directions for apple pie filling. Drain cherries well before adding to the thickening mixture. Combine sugar, Clear Jel® and cinnamon in a large saucepan. Add water, food coloring and almond extract. Stir mixture and cook over medium-high heat until mixture thickens and begins to bubble, Add lemon juice and boil I minute, stirring constantly. Fold in cherries immediately. Fill jars with mixture without delay, leaving 1-inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process immediately in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints or Quarts..................................................................30 minutes
NOTE: Frozen cherries can be used in the above recipe. Follow the same basic recipe, making the following adjustments. Select unsweetened frozen cherries, if possible. If sweetened fruit is used, rinse the fruit while it is still frozen. As the fruit thaws, collect any juice and use it for part of the water specified in the recipe. Use ¼ cup Clear Jel® for one quart of filling; 1¾ cup for seven quarts.

Peach Pie Filling

  Ingredients Needed For
  1 Quart Jar
7 Quart Jars
Fresh sliced peaches
Sugar
Clear Jel®
Cold water
Cinnamon (optional)
Almond extract (optional)
Bottled lemon juice
3½ cups
1 cup
¼ cup + 1 Tbsp.
¾ cup
1/8 teaspoon
1/8 teaspoon ¼ cup
6 quarts
7 cups
2 cups + 2 Tbsp.
5¼ cups
1 teaspoon
1 teaspoon
1¾ cups

Hot Pack-Select ripe, but firm peaches. To loosen skins, submerge peaches in boiling water for approximately 30 to 60 seconds. Then place in cold water for 20 seconds. Slip off skins. Cut peaches into ½-inch wide slices. Follow directions to prevent darkening. To blanch, follow the directions for apple pie filling. Combine sugar, Clear Jel® and cinnamon in a large saucepot. Add water and almond extract. Stir and cook over medium high heat until mixture thickens and begins to bubble. Add lemon juice and boil sauce 1 minute more, stirring constantly Fold drained peach slices into the thickening mixture and continue to heat mixture for 3 minutes. Fill jars without delay leaving 1-inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process immediately in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints or Quarts..................................................................30 minutes

Green Tomato Pie Filling
(about 7 quart jars)

4 quarts chopped green tomatoes
3 quarts peeled and chopped tart apples
1 pound dark seedless raisins
1 pound white raisins
¼ cup minced citron, lemon peel or orange peel
2 cups water
2½ cups brown sugar
2½ cups white sugar
½ cup vinegar
1 cup bottled lemon juice
2 tablespoons ground cinnamon
1 teaspoon ground nutmeg
1 teaspoon ground cloves

Hot Pack-Combine all ingredients in a large saucepan. Cook slowly stirring often, until tender and slightly thickened (about 35 to 40 minutes). Fill jars with hot mixture, leaving ½-inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process in a Boiling Water Bath.

Pints or Quarts..................................................................15 minutes

Mincemeat Pie Filling
(about 7 quart jars)

5 pounds ground beef
or 4 pounds ground venison
and 1 pound sausage
5 quarts chopped apples
2 cups finely chopped suet
2 pounds dark seedless raisins
1 pound white raisins
2 quarts apple cider
2 tablespoons ground cinnamon
2 teaspoons ground cloves
2 teaspoons ground nutmeg
5 cups sugar
2 tablespoons salt

Hot Pack-Cook meat and suet in water to avoid browning. Peel, core and quarter apples. Put meat, suet and apples through food grinder using a medium blade. Combine all ingredients in a large saucepan. Simmer 1 hour or until slightly thickened, stirring often. Fill jars with mixture without delay, leaving 1-inch head space. Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.

Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints or Quarts..................................................................90 minutes

CAUTION: If you are processing at an altitude over 1000 feet, follow the altitude adjustments given for canning vegetables.

Boiling Water Bath Processing Times for Pie Fillings at Altitudes Over 1000 Feet

  Process Time (Minutes)
at Altitudes of
Pie Filling Style of Pack Jar Size 1001-3000 ft. 3001-6000 ft. over 6000 ft.

Apple Pie Filling Hot Pints or Quarts 30 35 40

Blueberry Pie Filling Hot Pints or Quarts 35 40 45

Cherry Pie Filling Hot Pints or Quarts 35 40 45

Peach Pie Filling Hot Pints or Quarts 35 40 45

Green Tomato Pie Filling Hot Pints or Quarts 20 20 25

Canning Nut Meats

Freezing is easier and produces as satisfactory a product.

Hot Pack (dry)-Shell nuts. Spread a single layer of nut meats on baking pans and place in a 250° F oven. Stir occasionally heating only until the nut meats are dry but not browned. Watch carefully that they don't scorch. Pack hot nuts into half-pint or pint jars, leaving ½-inch head space. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids and process.
Option I-Process in a Boiling Water Bath with the water 1- to 2-inches below the tops of the jars.

Pints or Quarts..................................................................30 minutes
Option 2-Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 6 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Canner at 5 pounds pressure:

Pints or Quarts..................................................................10 minutes
CAUTION: The processing times and pressures given for canning nut meats are for altitudes of 0-1000 feet. If you are canning at a higher altitude, follow these altitude adjustments:

Canning Green Peanuts in the Shell

Hot Pack-Select fully mature, green peanuts, clean and wash. Soak in fresh water for one hour. Discard water, cover with fresh water and soak for another hour. Repeat this soaking process one more time, for a total soaking time of three hours, using fresh water each time. Then parboil the peanuts for 10 minutes in fresh water and drain.

Pack the hot peanuts into hot jars, leaving ½-head space. Fill jar to ½ inch from the top with boiling brine (1 cup salt per gallon of water). Remove air bubbles. Wipe jar rims. Adjust lids. Process in a Dial Gauge Pressure Canner at 11 pounds pressure OR in a Weighted Gauge Pressure Canner at 10 pounds pressure:

Pints...................................................................................45 minutes

Quarts................................................................................50 minutes

Most Frequently Asked Questions -- General

  1. Can food be recanned if the lid does not seal?
    Canned food can safely be recanned if the unsealed jar is discovered within 24 hours. To recan, remove the lid and check the jar sealing surface for tiny nicks. Change the jar if necessary add a new treated lid and reprocess using the same processing time.

  2. If canned foods have been frozen during storage, are they safe to eat?
    Freezing does not cause food spoilage unless the seal is damaged or the jar is broken. This often happens as the food expands during freezing. However, frozen foods may be less palatable than properly stored canned food. In an unheated storage place, protect canned foods by wrapping the jars in paper or covering them with a blanket.

  3. If my recipe doesn't call for processing, do I need to do so?
    Many recipes passed down through the years or found in older cookbooks do not include instructions for processing. The foods are usually canned by the open kettle method, sealed and stored. Foods prepared in this manner present a serious health risk-particularly low acid foods. To minimize the risk of food spoilage, all high acid foods should be processed in a water bath canner or pressure canner and all low acid foods in a pressure canner.

  4. Do I really need to leave a certain amount of head space in the jar?
    Yes, leaving the specified amount of head space in a jar is important to assure a vacuum seal. If too little head space is allowed the food may expand and bubble out when air is being forced out from under the lid during processing. The bubbling food may leave a deposit on the rim of the jar or the seal of the lid and prevent the jar from sealing properly If too much head space is allowed, the food at the top is likely to discolor. Also, the jar may not seal properly because there will not be enough processing time to drive all the air out of the jar.

  5. How long will canned food keep?
    Properly canned food stored in a cool, dry place will retain optimum eating quality for at least 1 year. Canned food stored in a warm place near hot pipes, a range, a furnace, or in indirect sunlight may lose some of its eating quality in a few weeks or months, depending on the temperature. Dampness may corrode cans or metal lids and cause leakage so the food will spoil.

  6. Is it necessary to sterilize jars before canning?
    Jars do not need to be sterilized before canning if they will be filled with food and processed in a boiling water bath canner for 10 minutes or more or if they will be processed in a pressure canner. Jars that will be processed in a boiling water bath canner for less than 10 minutes need to be sterilized by boiling them in hot water for 10 minutes before they're filled.

  7. Is it safe to process food in the oven?
    No. This can be dangerous because the temperature will vary according to the accuracy of oven regulators and circulation of heat. Dry heat is very slow in penetrating into jars of food. Also, jars explode easily in the oven.

  8. Can two layers of jars be processed in a canner at one time?
    Yes, two layers can be processed at one time, in either the boiling water bath or pressure canner. Place a small wire rack between the layers so water or steam will circulate around each jar. Make certain that the water covers the top of the jars by 1 inch in a boiling water bath canner. The pressure canner should have 2 to 3 inches of water in the bottom.

  9. Is it necessary to exhaust a pressure canner?
    Yes, it is very important to allow steam to escape for 10 minutes before closing the valve, or placing the weight on the vent. If the canner is not exhausted, the inside temperature may not correspond to the pressure on the gauge.

  10. Should liquid lost during processing be replaced?
    No. Loss of liquid does not cause food to spoil, though the food above the liquid may darken.

  11. Is it all right to reuse jar fittings (lids and bands)?
    Lids should not be used a second time since the sealing compound becomes indented by the first use, preventing another airtight seal. Screw bands may be reused unless they are badly rusted or the top edge is pried up which would prevent a proper seal.

  12. Why is open kettle canning not recommended?
    In open kettle canning, food is cooked in an ordinary kettle, then packed into hot jars and sealed without processing. The temperatures obtained in open kettle canning are not high enough to destroy all spoilage and food poisoning organisms that may be in the food. Also, microorganisms can enter the food when it is transferred from the kettle to jar and cause spoilage.

  13. Why do the undersides of metal lids sometimes discolor?
    Natural compounds in some foods, particularly acids, corrode metal and make a dark deposit on the underside of jar lids. This deposit on lids of sealed, properly processed canned foods is harmless.

  14. What causes jars to break in a canner?
    Breakage can occur for several reasons: 1. Using commercial food jars rather than jars manufactured for home canning, 2. Using jars that have hairline cracks, 3. Putting jars directly on bottom of canner instead of on a rack, 4. Putting hot food in cold jars, or 5. Putting jars of raw or unheated food directly into boiling water in the canner, rather than into hot water (sudden change in temperature-too wide a margin between temperature of filled jars and water in canner before processing).

  15. If I find mold growing inside a jar of canned food, can I just scrape it off and eat the food?
    Mold growth in foods can alter the pH of the food. In home canned products, this could mean that the high acid products could become low acid and therefore run the risk of botulism or other bacterial spoilage. Thus, any home canned product that shows signs of mold growth should be discarded. The exception to this is jellied products. In these the high sugar content would prevent the growth of Clostridium botulinum. In jellied products, remove any surface mold plus ½ inch of the good product underneath and then use the rest immediately. Jellied products with extensive mold should be discarded.

  16. How can I remove scale or hard-water film from canning jars?
    Soak jars for several hours in a solution containing 1 cup of vinegar and 1 gallon of water.

    Vegetables and Fruits

  17. Is it safe to can food without salt?
    Yes. Salt is used for flavor only and is not necessary to prevent spoilage.

  18. Is it safe to can fruits without sugar?
    Yes. Sugar is added to improve flavor, help stabilize color, and retain the shape of the fruit. It is not added as a preservative.

  19. Can fruits and vegetables be canned without heating if aspirin is used?
    No. Aspirin should not be used in canning. It cannot be relied on to prevent spoilage or to give satisfactory products. Adequate heat treatment is the only safe procedure.

  20. Is it safe to can green beans in a boiling water bath if vinegar is used?
    No. Recommended processing methods must be used to assure safety. Recommended processing times cannot be shortened if vinegar is used in canning fresh vegetables (this does not refer to pickled vegetables).

  21. Should all vegetables be precooked before canning?
    For best quality, yes. However, some vegetables can be packed raw or cold into jars before being processed in the pressure canner.

  22. What vegetables expand instead of shrink during processing?
    Corn, peas and lima beans are starchy and expand during processing. They should be packed loosely.

  23. What causes corn to turn brown during processing?
    This occurs most often when too high a temperature is used causing caramelization of the sugar in the corn. It may also be caused by some minerals in the water used in canning.

    Meats

  24. Should giblets of chicken be canned in the same jar with chicken?
    No. Their flavor may permeate other pieces of chicken in the jar.

  25. Is it safe to can meat and poultry without salt?
    Yes. Salt is used for flavor only and is not necessary for safe processing.

  26. Why is it necessary to remove as much fat from meats as possible before canning?
    Any fat that gets on the rim of the canning jar can prevent an airtight seal. Excess fat in jars makes it easier for the fat to climb the sides of the jar and contaminate the seal.

Remedies for Canning Problems

Problem   Cause   Prevention

I. CANNED FOODS
Loss of liquid from glass jars during processing. Do not open to replace liquid. (Not a sign of spoilage) 1. Lowering pressure in canner suddenly after processing period. 1. Do not force pressure down by placing canner in a draft, opening the vent too soon, etc. Allow pressure to drop to zero naturally; wait 2 minutes before opening.
 
2. Fluctuating pressure during processing in pressure canner. 2. Maintain a constant temperature throughout processing time
 
3. Failure to work out air bubbles from jars before processing. 3. Remove by running a plastic spatula or knife between food and jar.
 
4. Improper seal for the type closure used. 4. Follow the manufacturer's directions for closure used.
 
5. Jars not covered with water in water bath canner. 5. Jars should be covered with 1 to 2 inches of water throughout processing period.
 
6. Starchy foods absorbed liquid. 6. None.
 
7. Food packed too tightly in jars can boil over during processing and start a siphon. 7. Leave the appropriate headspace.

Imperfect seal (discard food unless the trouble was detected within a few hours)
1. Chips or cracks in jars. 1. Examine carefully by rubbing finger around the mouth of the jar.
 
2. Failure to follow recommended directions for closures used. 2. Follow manufacturer's directions.
 
3. Particles left on mouth of jar. 3. A clean, damp cloth should be used to remove any seeds, seasonings, etc. that prevent a perfect seal.
 
4. Using old closures that should be discarded. 4. Do not reuse rubber rings and self-sealing metal lids. Do not try to use rusty bands.
 
5. Lifting jars by tops or inverting while hot. 5. Use jar lifter for removing jars from canner, graspong below tip. Leave in upright position.
 
6. Fat on jar rim. 6. Trim fat from meats. Add no extra fat.Wipe jar rim well.

Product dark at top of jar (not necessarily a sign of spoilage)
1. Air left in the jars permits oxidation 1. Remove air bubbles before sealing jars. Use recommended head space.
 
2. Insufficient amount of liquid or syrup. 2. Cover product with water or syrup.
 
3. Food not processed long enough to destroy enzymes. 3. Process recommended length of time.

Cloudy liquid (sometimes denotes spoilage)
1. Starch in vegetables. 1. Select products at desirable stage of maturity. Do not use overmature vegetables.
 
2. Minerals in water. 2. Use soft water.
 
3. Fillers in table salt. 3. Use pure refined salt.
 
4. Spoilage 4. Process by recommended method and for recommended time.

Color changes that are undesirable
1. Contact with minerals such as iron, zinc or copper in cooking utensils or water. 1. Avoid these conditions by using carefully selected cooking utensils. Use soft water.
 
2. Over processing. 2. Follow directions for processing times.
 
3. Immature or overmature product. 3. Select fruits and vegetables at optimum stage of maturity.
 
4. Exposure to light. 4. Best to store canned foods in a dark place.
 
5. May be a distinct spoilage. 5. Process by recommended method and for recommended time.
 
6. Natural and harmless substances in fruits and vegetables (pink or blue color in apples, cauliflower, peaches, or pears) 6. None.

Sediment in jars (not necessarily a sign of spoilage)
1. Starch in vegetables. 1. Select products at desirable stage of maturity.
 
2. Minerals in water. 2. Use soft water.
 
3. Fillers in table salt. 3. Use pure or refined salt.
 
4. Yellow sediment in green vegetables or onions. 4. None (natural occurrence)
 
6. Spoilage. 6. Process by recommended method and for recommended time.

Spoilage
1. Incorrect pressure. 1. Gauge should be checked every year for accuracy.
 
2. Incorrect timing. 2. Follow directions for timing.
 
3. Incorrect method used. 3. Low acid vegetables and meats must be pressure canned for safety.
 
4. Poor selection of fruits and vegetables. 4. Select product of suitable variety and at proper stage of maturity. Can immediately after gathering.
 
5. Poor seal on jar. 5. Check jars and lids for defects. Wipe jar rim before closing. Don't overfill jars.

Floating (especially some fruits)
1. Over processing fruits and tomatoes destroys pectin. 1. Follow directions for processing times.
 
2. Fruit is lighter than syrup. 2. Use firm, ripe fruit. Heat before packing. Use a light to medium syrup.
 
3. Improper packing. 3. Pack fruit as closely as possible without crushing it.

II. CANNED JUICES
Fermentation or Spoilage
1. Failure to process adequately. 1. Juices should be processed in boiling water bath.
 
2. Imperfect Seal. 2. Use recommended methods and processing time. Use perfect jars and fittings.
 
3. Air left in jars. 3. Proper processing will exclude air from jars.

Cloudy sediment in bottom of jar.
1. Solids in juice settle. 1. Juice may be strained and made into jelly. Shake juices if used as a beverage.

Separation of juice (especially tomato)
1. Enzymatic change during handling (after cutting) 1. Heat tomatoes quickly to simmering temperature.

Poor flavor
1. Immature, overripe, or inferior fruit used. 1. Use only good quality, firm, ripe fruit or tomatoes for making juice.
 
2. Use of too much water for extracting fruit juice. 2. Use only amount of water called for in directions. No water is added to tomatoes.
 
3. Improper storage. 3. Cool, dark, dry storage.

 

References

  1. Complete Guide to Home Canning, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1988.

  2. Home Canning of Fruits and Vegetables, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1982.

  3. Home Canning of Meat and Poultry, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1972.

  4. Home Canning, L. Hamilton and G. Kuhn, Cooperative Extension Service, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, 1980.

  5. Home Canning Acid Foods, B. Walsh, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, 1981.

  6. Home Canning - Fruits, Vegetables and Meats, I. Wolf and E. Zottola, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, 1978.

  7. Canning Seafood, C. Raab, Cooperative Extension Service, Pacific Northwest (Washington, Oregon, Idaho), August, 1979.

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  1. This publication was produced by the University of Georgia; Susan Reynolds, Extension Foods Specialist. Revised by Judy A. Harrison, PhD., Extension Foods Specialist

  2. Bulletin 989. Website Version: November 1998.

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